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Unit 2 English around the world3  

2009-12-05 10:05:33|  分类: 高一英语必修1 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Period 3 Important Language Points

整体设计

从容说课

This is the third teaching period of this unit. The teacher should first check the students’ homework and offer chances for the students to review what they learned in the second period.

The emphasis in this period will be laid on the important new words, expressions and sentence patterns. In order to make the students understand these points thoroughly, the teacher can first get the students to understand their meanings in the context, then give some explanations about them, later offer some practices to let the students know their usages. Some words and expressions, such as include, command, request, recognize, because of, such as, play a role in, etc. are very useful and important. The teacher ought to pay more attention to them and design special exercises.

Also in this unit, there are some words which show directions, such as western, eastern, Midwestern, southern and northwestern. The teacher can first get students to review east, west, south and north they learned in Junior middle school, then enlarge them and design situations to make students master them by games.

At the end of the class, the teacher can make the students do more exercises for consolidation. In doing so, they can learn, grasp and use these important language points well.

教学重点

Enable the students to grasp the usages of such important new words and expressions as include, command, request, recognize, because of, such as, play a role in, etc.

教学难点Enable the students to grasp the usages of include, recognize, such as, etc. and understand some difficult and long sentences.

教学方法 1. Discussing, summarizing and practicing

2. Cooperative learning

教具准备 The multimedia and other normal teaching tools

三维目标

Knowledge aims:

1. Get the students to learn and grasp some important new words and expressions:include role international native elevator flat apartment rubber petrol gas modern culture actually present(adj. ) rule(v. ) vocabulary usage identity government rapidly phrase candy lorry command request retell polite boss standard southern eastern southeastern northwestern recognize accent lightning direction subway block play a role in  because of  come up  such as  play a part(in)

2. Get the students to understand some useful sentence patterns:

 1)Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. (even if. . . )

2)It became less like German, and more like French because those who ruled England at that time spoke French. (those who. . . )

3)Believe it or not, there is no such a thing as standard English. (Believe it or not. . . )

4)The US is a large country (in which. . . )

5)These men spent nearly all of their lives trying to collect words for their dictionaries. (spend. . . (in)doing. . . )

Ability aims:

1. Enable the students to use some useful words and expressions correctly.

2. Enable the students to learn how to understand new words, expressions and difficult sentences according to the context.

Emotional aim:

Develop the students’ spirit of cooperation and teamwork.

教学过程

设计方案(一)

→Step 1 Revision

1. Check the homework exercises.

2. Ask some students to tell something about different English dialects.

→Step 2 Reading and exercise

Get the students to try to find out the words and expressions as quickly as possible in the related parts and let them learn some important new words and expressions by studying their contexts, clues and word-formation.

The teacher shows the following on the screen.

Fill in the blanks with the words and expressions in this unit to complete the following sentences.

1. He likes to help us______________ he is very busy.

2. We’ve known for years.______________, since we were babies.

3.______________, John cheated in the exam.

4. There is a______________ of stone on the road.

5. He has played all kinds of______________ in his life.

6. He learnt to use body language to______________ with deaf customers.

→Step 3 Checking

Explain the problems the students meet while checking the answers.

Suggested answers:

1. even if 2. Actually 3. Believe it or not 4. block 5. roles 6. communicate

→Step 4 Language Points

1. include vt. to be one of the parts; to make something or someone part of a larger group包括;包含

The price includes postage charges.

价格包括邮费在内。

The university includes ten colleges.

该大学有10个学院。

including & included:

There were twelve of us, including Tom and me.

我们有12人,包括我和Tom在内。

Everyone has to go to the dentist’s, you included.

人人都得去牙科诊所,你也不例外。

1)Last Sunday, Sara took with a few of her friends,______________, to the World Park where we enjoyed ourselves very much.

A. I including

B. me including

C. included me

D. including me

2)Mary has ten story books,____________5 Chinese ones and 5 English ones____________.

A. including; including

B. including; included

C. included; included

D. included; including

答案:1)D 2)B

2. role n. the character played by an actor in a play or film; the position that someone has in society or an organization角色;作用

Matthews plays the role of a young doctor in the film.

Matthews在这部电影中扮演一名青年医生。

Women are often forced into a supportive role in the family.

妇女往往被迫在家庭中成为辅助角色。

play a leading/major/key role in be important in making changes happen在……起主要作用;起带头作用

Mandela played a leading role in ending apartheid in South Africa.

Mandela在结束南非种族隔离方面起了重要的作用。

They are playing an important role in safeguarding peace.

他们在保卫和平中起着重要作用。

play a role & play a part:

play a role to act, take the actor’s part in a play扮演角色

He has played all kinds of roles in his life.

他一生中扮演了各种各样的角色。

play a part to be involved in an activity参加某活动

She played an active part in the local community.

她积极参与地方活动。

两个短语都可表示to make a contribution to sth. ; have a share in sth. (对某事起作用、有贡献)

She played an important role/a major part in winning the match.

她对这场比赛的胜利起了重要作用。

Everyone played______________ the full.

A. his role in  B. their roles to  C. their roles as  D. his role to

答案:B

3. because of as the result of a particular thing or someone’s action因为;由于;为了

He had to retire because of poor health.

他因健康原因不得不退休。

I didn’t go out because of rain.

因为下雨,所以我没有出去。

because & because of:

because conj. for the reason that因为。用于从句的开头,放在主语和谓语动词之前。

because of prep. by reason of(sb. /sth. ); on account of因为(某人/某事物)。用于名词或代词前面。

She got the job because she was the best candidate.

她得到了这项工作因为她是最佳候选人。

They are here because of us.

他们是为了我们来到这里的。

Tom was absent______________ school______________ the illness.

A. from; because ofB. in; forC. at; becauseD. out of; because of

答案:A

4. native

1)adj. associated with the place and circumstances of one’s birth出生地的;与出生地有关的

They never saw their native land again.

他们再也没有看到过他们的祖国。

native language/tongue the language you spoke when you first learned to speak母语

2)n. a person who was born in a particular place当地人

Are you a native of New York?

你是纽约人吗?

5. come up

1)to be mentioned被提出

A lot of new questions came up at the meeting.

会上提出了许多新的问题。

2)to be about to happen soon临近

Don’t you have a birthday coming up soon?

不是快到你的生日了吗?

3)to move near someone or something by walking走近

Come up to the front of the room so everyone can see you.

请到房间的前面来,让大家都能看到你。

4)(of plants)to appear above the soil(指植物)长出地面

The grass is just beginning to come up.

草刚开始长出来。

5)(of the sun)to rise(指太阳)升起

We watched the sun come up.

我们观看了日出。

6)to occur; arise发生;出现

I’m afraid something urgent has come up. I won’t be able to see you tonight.

很抱歉,有些急事,今晚不能见你了。

come about to happen in a way that seems impossible to control发生

come across to meet or find something or someone by chance碰到;偶遇

come along to get along; to encourage sb. to try harder一起来;同意,赞成;进展,进步

come by to obtain something that is difficult to find弄到,获得;偶然搞到,偶然得到

come up with to think of an idea提出(建议);找到(答案、解决办法)

(1)Mary______________ her old classmate on the street yesterday evening.

A. came upB. came alongC. came acrossD. came about

(2)Much to our surprise, the airline has______________ a new solution to the problem of jet-plane.

A. put up with

B. come up with

C. catch up with

D. keep up with

(3)A lot of questions which are related to everyday life have______________ at the meeting.

A. come toB. come aroundC. come upD. come out

答案:1. C 2. B 3. C

(The word “come” has many phrasal verbs. It is better to ask students to refer to a good dictionary. )

6. present adj.

1)be present

(1)to be in a particular place(opposite of “absent”)出席;在场

How many people were present at the meeting yesterday?

昨天的会议有多少人出席?

(2)to be remembered for a long time呈现

The memory of the disaster last year is still present in her mind.

去年那场灾害现在还时常呈现在她的脑海中。

2)(only before noun)existing now现存的;现在的,目前的

What’s your present address?

你现在住在哪里?

at present现在;目前

be present to出现在……面前

for the present暂时;暂且

live in the present顺应当前形势;只顾眼前

up to/until the present直到现在

7. such as like; for example(used to give an example of something)诸如,譬如说; 像……那样的(用于列举)

The local economy still relies on traditional industries such as farming and mining.

当地经济依然依赖于传统的工业,比如农业和矿业。

My doctor told me not to eat fatty foods such as bacon or hamburgers.

我的医生叫我不要吃油腻的食物,如咸肉或汉堡包。

8. command

1)vi. & vt. to tell someone officially to do something, esp. if you are a military leader or a king to get something such as attention or respect指挥,命令;博得,得到

Who commands here?

谁在这儿指挥?

The general commanded that the regiment(should)attack at once. /The general commanded the regiment to attack at once.

将军命令部队立刻发起攻击。

Dr. Yang commands a great deal of respect as a surgeon.

作为外科医生,杨博士博得了(社会的)敬仰。

2)n.

get/have a good command of to get/have a good mastery of精通;能自由应用

We should have a good command of English.

我们应该精通英语。

9. request

1)vt. to ask for something politely or formally(郑重或正式)请求,要求,恳求,邀请

Your presence is immediately requested.

即请光临。

All I request of you is that you(should)be punctual.

我只要求你准时。

She requested him to go with her.

她邀请他一同去。

2)n. a polite demand for something请求,要求,邀请

They have made an urgent request for international aid.

他们紧急请求国际援助。

in great

/request sth. from/of sb. 向某人要求某物

/at sb. ‘s request/at the request of sb. 应某人要求

/as requested依照请求

/by request(of)依照请求;应邀;如嘱

/in great request(=much in request)非常需要,非常喜爱

/make(a)request for请求,要求

ask, beg & request:

若要某人做某事,ask是最通俗、最口语化的词。

I asked her to shut the window.

我让她关上窗户。

request主要用于较正式的讲话和文字中,常用于通告中,多用于被动语态。

Passengers are kindly requested not to smoke in the car.

乘客请勿在车厢内(或汽车内)吸烟。

beg指以谦恭的姿态要求给予巨大的帮助。

He knew he had hurt her and begged her to forgive him.

他自知伤了她的心而央求她原谅。

Visitors______________ not to touch the exhibits.

A. will request  B. request  C. are requesting  D. are requested

答案:D

10. recognize vt.

1)to know who someone is or what something is, because you have ever seen them or it before认出;辨出

Susan came home so thin and weak that her own children hardly recognized her.

Susan回家时又瘦又弱,孩子都差点没认出她来。

2)to accept that an organization has legal or official authority承认;认可

British medical qualifications are recognized in Canada.

加拿大承认英国的行医资格。

(1)Although we had not met each other for over 20 years, I______________ her in the crowds at the first sight.

A. knew

B. recognized

C. regarded

D. reconsidered

(2)—Oh, it’s you! I______________ you.

—I’ve just had my hair cut, and I’ve wearing new glasses.

A. didn’t recognize

B. hadn’t recognized

C. haven’t recognized

D. don’t recognize

(3)Tom is recognized______________ the best student.

A. toB. asC. withD. for

答案:(1)B (2)A (3)B

→Step 5 Analyzing some important and difficult sentences

1. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak

the same kind of English.

这里的even if they don’t speak the same kind of English是让步状语从句,整个句子可以翻译成“以英语作为母语的人,即使他们所讲的语言不尽相同,也可以互相交流”。

even if等于even though,意思是“即使、尽管”,引导让步状语从句。

Even if we have learned “even though” we still find it difficult to use.

尽管我们学过“even though”,但我们还是发现运用它很难。

Mr. Smith likes to help us even if/though he is very busy.

史密斯先生虽然很忙,他还是愿意帮我们。

2. It became less like German, and more like French because those who ruled England at that time spoke French.

这里的because those who ruled England at that time spoke French是原因状从句,who ruled England at that time是定语从句,整个句子可以翻译成“它(英语)不那么像德语,而更像法语了,因为那时的英国的统治者讲法语”。

3. Believe it or not, there is no such a thing as Standard English.

这里的Believe it or not意思是“信不信由你、不管你信不信”,通常在句子中作插入语,有逗号和句子分开。such(. . . )as在这里相当于like或for example。整个句子可以翻译成“信不信由你,(世界上)根本没有什么标准英语”。

Believe it or not, what I said just now is true.

信不信由你,我刚才说的是真的。

4. The US is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken.

这里的in which many different dialects are spoken是由介词in+which引导的定语从句,修饰先行词country,介词in也可以放在定语从句中,即which many different dialects are spoken in。整个句子可以翻译成“美国是一个大国,国内说着许许多多的方言”。

They went to a large garden in which were many green trees and red flowers.

他们来到一个大花园,里面长着许多红花绿树。

5. These men spent nearly all of their lives trying to collect words for their dictionaries.

句子中的spend. . . (in)doing. . . 意思是“花费(时间等)干……”,有时也用spend. . . on+n. 。整个句子的意思是“这些人几乎用了他们一生的时间为了编词典收集单词”。

Now more and more city adults spend their leisure time trying to improve themselves at school or college.

现在越来越多的城市里的成年人把他们的闲暇时间花在学校里提高自己。

Mary spent 10 dollars on the new beautiful dress.

玛丽花10美元买了这条漂亮的裙子。

6. So why has English changed over time?

句子中的over相当于throughout(a period)或during,意思是“贯穿(一时间段)”,所以整个句子可译成“那么,英语在一段时间里为什么会起变化呢?”。

Over the years he has become more patient.

这几年他越来越有耐心。

Rick came to town over the weekend.

瑞克周末到城里来过。

7. Actually, it was based more on German than present day English.

句子中base sth. on sth. (to use sth. as grounds, evidence, etc. for sth. else),意思是“以某事物为另一事物的根据、证据等”,也常用be based on的形式。因此,该句可翻译成“实际上,当时的英语更多的是以德语为基础的,而现代英语不是”。

He based his hopes on the good news we had yesterday.

他把希望寄托在我们昨天得到的好消息上。

This novel is based on fact.

这部小说是以事实为根据的。

→Step 6 Consolidation

Show the exercises on the screen or give out test papers.

1. Mr. White will______________ in the movement.

A. play a leading part

B. take parts

C. play leading part

D. take a part

2.______________ of the students who took part in the military training is 450.

A. A number

B. A lot

C. Lots

D. The number

3. Sometimes______________ English is quite different from______________ English in many ways.

A. speaking; writingB. spoken; written

C. speaking; writtenD. spoken; writing

4. When we visited Zhangzhuang again ten years later, we found it changed so much that we could hardly______________ it.

A. remember

B. think about

C. believe

D. recognize

5. The office ordered his soldiers______________ .

A. to stand still

B. to not stand still

C. not stand still

D. stand still

6. They lived a hard life and were often made______________ for over ten hours a day.

A. work

B. to work

C. to working

D. worked

7. Do you have any difficulty______________ ?

A. on listeningB. to listening

C. for listeningD. in listening

8. Please tell me the way you thought of______________ the garden.

A. take care of

B. to take care of

C. taking care of

D. to take care

9. It’s______________ hot here. We can’t stay here for a long time.

A. much

B. very much

C. much too

D. too much

10. How did all these______________?

A. came out

B. come up

C. come across

D. come about

First get the students to do the following exercises. Then the answers are given. The teacher can give them explanations where necessary.

答案:1. A 2. D 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. B 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. B

→Step 7 Workbook

Do Exercise 3 on Page 49 in Using words and expressions.

→Step 8 Homework

1. Finish off the Workbook exercises. Write down Exercise 3 in the exercise book.

2. Learn the new words and expressions by heart.

板书设计

Unit 2 English around the world

Important Language Points

1. He likes to help us______________ he is very busy.

2. We’ve known for years.______________ , since we were babies.

3.______________ , John cheated in the exam.

4. There is a______________ of stone on the road.

5. He has played all kinds of______________ in his life.

6. He learnt to use body language to______________ with deaf customers.

 

活动与探究

Words showing directions are important in our daily life. Remember them by doing a game as follows.

1. Let students draw a square as follows to represent a classroom.

2. Tell students the “front” stands for “north”.

3. Then ask students to write down all the directions including the adjectives in the box correctly.

4. Play a game.

Supposed situation:A hides something in a box and asks B to guess where it is. B has to use direction words.

Sample dialogue.

A:I have hidden my dictionary somewhere in the classroom. Can you guess where it is?

B:Is it in the south?

A:No.

B:Is it in the southwest?

A:No.

. . .

备课资料

1. British English, American English and Chinese

British English

American English

Chinese

autumn

fall

秋天

bill

check

清单

bin liner

trash bag

垃圾袋

botanic garden

botanical garden

植物园

braces

suspenders

吊裤带;吊杆

charity

non-profit organization

慈善机构

chemist’s

pharmacy/drug store

药店

cinema

movie theater, theater

电影院

coach

bus

长途汽车

DIY

do it yourself

自己动手做

dustbin

trash can

垃圾箱

engaged(as in telephone)

busy

(电话)占线

fee(for schooling)

tuition

学费

fit(verb)

equip, fit out

安装

flat

apartment

单元住宅

football

soccer

足球

freephone

toll-free

免费电话

gents

men’s room

男厕

headmaster

principal

男厕

hire(hire a car)

rent(rent a car)

租借

holiday

vacation

假日

ill

sick

有病的

in future

in the future

未来,将来

in hospital

in the hospital

住院

join the train

get on the train

上火车

jumper

sweater

毛线衫

licence(noun)

license

执照

British English

American English

Chinese

 

2. Further reading

Historical Background of British and American English

The history of the English language is divided into three periods: The period from 450 to 1150 is known as the Old English. It is described as the period of full inflections(词尾变化), since during most of this period the case ending of the noun, the adjective and the conjugation(结合)of the verb were not weakened. Old English was a highly inflected language. It had a complete system of declensions(变格)with four case and conjugations. So Old English grammar differs from Modern English grammar in these aspects(方面).

The period from 1150 is known as the Middle English period. It is know as the period inflections. This period was marked by important changes in the English language. The Norman Conquest was the cause of these changes. The change of this period had a great effect on both grammar and vocabulary. In this period many Old English words were lost, but thousands of words borrowed from French and Latin appeared in the English vocabulary. In the Middle English period grammatical gender(性)disappeared, grammatical gender was completely replaced by the natural gender.

Modern English period extends from 1500 to the present day. The Early modern English period extends from 1500 to 1700. The chief influence of this time was great humanistic(人文主义的)movement of the Renaissance. The influence of Latin and Greek on English was great. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries are a period of rapid expansion(扩张)for the English vocabulary in the history of the English language.

The development of the English language in America can be separated into three periods:The first period extends from the settlement of Jamestown in 1607 to the end of colonial times. In this period the population in America numbered about four million people, 90 of percent of whom came from Britain. The second period covers the expansion of the original thirteen colonies. This time may be said to close with the Civil War, about 1860. This period was marked by the arrival of the new immigrants(移民)from Ireland and Germany. The third period, since the Civil War, is marked by an important change in the source from which the European immigrants came. They came from northern and southern Europe in large numbers.

As time went on, the English language gradually changed on both sides of the Atlantic. The Americans adopted(接纳)many words from foreign languages and invented large number of new words to meet their various needs.

American English began in the seventeenth century. At the beginning of the 17th century the English language was brought to North American by colonists from English. They used the language spoken in England, that is, Elizabethan English, the language used by Shakespeare, Milton and Banyan. At first the language stayed the same as the language used in Britain, but slowly the language began to change. Sometimes, the English spoken in American changed but sometimes the language spoken in the place stayed the same, while the language in England changed.

Following American independence, famous persons like Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own. English in America has developed a character(特点)of its own, reflecting the life and the physical and social environment of the American people.

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