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Unit 1 Friendship 4  

2009-12-03 13:07:49|  分类: 高一英语必修1 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 1 Friendship

Period 4 Grammar

(Direct Speech and Indirect Speech (Ⅰ)

整体设计

从容说课

This is the fourth teaching period of this unit. To test whether the students have grasped the important and difficult language points they learned in the last period, the teacher should first offer them some revision exercises.

This teaching period is a grammar lesson. The students are expected to make clear the differences between Direct Speech and Indirect Speech and grasp the main usages of them in this period. Students often feel grammar very abstract and boring, so it is necessary to make the class lively and interesting. Example sentences and grammar summary should be carefully designed so as to make it easy for students to understand and accept.

In this lesson, we will first offer a supposed situation and make the students learn about the differences between Direct Speech and Indirect Speech. The situation makes students know that when talking in our daily life sometimes we have got to use Direct Speech and sometimes we also need to use Indirect Speech. This is to help them to have the sense to connect grammar form with real situations in our daily life. If we want to express ourselves clearly and correctly, we should use a proper form of language, otherwise others can’t understand us. That is why it is necessary for us to have some knowledge in grammar.

Later on, we’ll show and explain the rules of these grammar items, that is to say, to make the students know how to change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech and Indirect Speech into Direct Speech. Then ask them to do exercises in Discovering useful structures, Learning about language on Page 5. It will make the students further know about the differences and grasp the usages. This also can help the students connect grammar rules with proper language forms so as to make grammar rules less abstract.

Then we will ask the students to do Exercise 1 in Using structures on Page 42. If the students have difficulty, help them and check their mistakes with the help of the grammar rules.

Tell the students not just to learn some simple grammar rules but to learn and use them in practical situations.

For example, my friend says, “I will come here tomorrow. ” If using Indirect Speech, you can express it in many different ways.

1. If at the same time in the same place, you should say:My friend says she (he) will come here tomorrow.

2. If the time has changed and still in the same place, you should say:My friend said she (he)would come here the next day.

3. If the place has changed and the time is still today, you should say:My friend said she (he)would go there tomorrow.

4. If both the time and the place have changed, you should say:My friend said she (he)would go there the next day.

5. If both the time and the place have changed, the other should say:He (She) said he (she) would go there the next day.

If students learn the grammar this way, it is easier for them to grasp.

教学重点

Summarize the rules of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech.

教学难点

Get the students to learn about the special cases in which the tenses shouldn’t be changed.

教学方法

Discussing, summarizing and practicing

教具准备

A projector and other necessary teaching tools

三维目标

Knowledge aims:

Get the students to learn and grasp the rules of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech.

Ability aims:

Get the students to be able to use the rules to express their meanings and retail others’ correctly.

Emotional aims:

1. Get the students not to be afraid of grammar learning.

2. Get the students to develop their sense of group cooperation.

教学过程

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 1 Friendship 4 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

→Step 1 Revision

1. Check the homework exercises.

2. Have a dictation to write some important words and expressions.

Suggested words and expressions:

upset ignore concern loose cheat reason share nature thunder entirely go through hide away calm down set down grow crazy about on purpose face to face according to

3. Translate some sentences using the patterns we have learned.

Suggested sentences:

1)为了上课不迟到,他七点钟就出发了。(in order to)

2)小明昨天没来上学确实是因为生病了。(It is. . . that. . . )

3)这小房间里太闹。(far too much)

4)那是我第一次到北京。(It is/was the first/second time/that. . . )

Suggested answers:

1)In order not to be late for class, he set off at seven o’clock. /He set off at seven o’clock in order not to be late for class.

2)It is because he was ill that Xiaoming didn’t come to school.

3)There is far too much noise in the small room.

4)It was the first time that I had been to Beijing.

→Step 2 Lead-in

Tell the class:In the last lesson, we learned Anne Frank’s story. She is telling her stories to two of her friends—you and Mary. Mary has something wrong with her ears, so you have to repeat Anne’s sentences, using Indirect speech. Sometimes you explain Mary’s sentences to Anne.

“I have to stay in the hiding place. ”said Anne.

→ Anne said she had to stay in the hiding place.

“Do you feel sad when you are not able to go outdoors? ” Mary asked Anne.

→ Mary asked Anne if/whether she felt sad when she was not able to go outdoors.

“I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary, ” said Anne.

→ Anne said that she didn’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary.

“What do you call your diary? ” Mary asked.

→ Mary asked what she called her diary.

. . .

Get the students to go on this topic by themselves.

→Step 3 Grammar

1. Tell the class:Now let’s look at these sentences again. If we want to change Direct Speech into Indirect Speech, what should be changed?

2. Get the students discuss by themselves.

Perhaps most students can find sentence structures, tenses, pronouns, adverbials of time and place and verbs should be changed.

3. Show the students the form on the screen. These are the rules.

当我们引用别人的话时,如果我们引用别人的原话,被引用的部分就叫直接引语,一般用“”引起来。如果我们用自己的话把意思转述出来,被转述的部分称为间接引语,间接引语在多数情况下都构成一个宾语从句。

直接引语变成间接引语时,要注意以下几点:人称变化、时态变化、宾语从句要用陈述句语序。

1)直接引语是陈述句,变成间接引语时,由连词that 引导。

Mary said, “I am very happy to help you. ”

→Mary said that she was very happy to help you.

2)直接引语是一般疑问句或选择疑问句,变成间接引语时,由连词whether或if引导。

He asked me, “Do you like playing basketball? ”

→He asked me if/whether I liked playing basketball.

注意:大多数情况下,if和whether都可以用,但后面和or not连用时或在动词不定式前或放在介词后作连接词时,一般只用whether。

She asked me whether I could do it or not.

3)直接引语是特殊疑问句,变成间接引语时,由原句的疑问词who, whom, whose, how, when, why, where 等引导。

My sister asked me, “What do you think of the film? ”

→My sister asked me what I thought of the film.

4)注意事项

(1)间接引语一般要用陈述句的语序,即主、谓、宾的顺序。

He asked Lucy, “Where have you been? ”

→He asked Lucy where she had been.

Mary said, “What do you want, Ann? ”

→Mary asked Ann what she wanted.

(2)直接引语是客观事实、真理、规律等,变成间接引语时,时态不变。

The teacher told his students, “The earth goes round the sun. ”

→The teacher told his students that the earth goes round the sun.

(3)直接引语变间接引语时,指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等要作相应的变化。

He said, “I haven’t seen my daughter today. ”

→He said that he hadn’t seen his daughter that day.

注意:如果转述时就在原来的地方,就在说话的当天,就没必要改变指示代词、时间状语、地点状语等。

时态变化规律表

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

一般将来时

过去将来时

一般过去时

过去完成时

现在完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

现在完成进行时

过去完成进行时

 

一些常用词变化规律表

 

直接引语

间接引语

指示代词

this

that

these

those

时间状语

now

then

today

that day

tomorrow

the next (following)day

next week/month/. . .

the next (following)week/month. . .

yesterday

the day before

last week/month/. . .

the week/month/. . . before

three days/months/. . . ago

three days/month/. . .

this week/month/. . .

that week/month. . .

地点

here

there

动词

come

go

Option:如果学生基础较好,语法部分也可用英语讲解。

1. Direct Speech

In direct speech, the original speaker’s exact words are given and are indicated by quotation marks.

“I don’t know what to do, ” said Tom.

In some grammar books, “said Tom” is referred to as a reporting clause. “I don’t know what to do, ” is referred to as the reported clause.

2. Indirect Speech

In indirect speech, the exact meaning of the speaker’s words is given, but the exact words are not directly quoted.

Tom said that he didn’t know what to do.

To convert direct speech into indirect speech:

If the main verb is past tense, present tense verbs in “that clause” must also be changed to past tense.

Tom said that he didn’t know what to do.

First and second person pronouns must be changed to third person pronouns.

Tom said that he didn’t know what to do.

(The word “that” can often be left out:Tom said he didn’t know what to do. )

3. Indirect Questions

The same rules apply to indirect questions as to indirect statements. The difference is that a wh-clause is used instead of a that clause.

Direct question:“Did Dick’s horse win a prize? ” Owen asked.

Indirect questions:Owen asked whether/if Dick’s horse had won a prize.

Direct question:“Why won’t you marry me? ” asked Donald.

Indirect question:Donald asked her why she wouldn’t marry him.

﹡In telling a story or recounting events, a speaker using direct speech has all the resources of intonation to produce a lively account. Because indirect speech is always reported by someone else, the account is more reserved and restrained.

“What shall we do? ” asked Mary.

“Don’t worry, Mary, ” said Dick, “I’ve got a plan. ”

Mary asked Dick what they should do. He told her not to worry and that he had got a plan.

﹡The ability to change direct speech into indirect speech is a useful skill for those engaged in taking the minutes of a meeting or reporting on events.

Direct speech:“First of all, I would like to thank everybody who helped with the fair. The results were very good, and we will now be able to buy two more computers. ”

Indirect speech:The principal said that he would like to thank everybody who had helped with the fair. He announced that the results were very good and that the school would now be able to buy two more computers.

→Step 4 Practice (Discovering useful structures)

Get the students to turn to Page 5. Please change the following direct speech into indirect speech and indirect into direct.

1. “I’m going to hide from the Germans, ” Anne said.

2. “I don’t know the address of my new home, ” said Anne.

3. “I cannot ask my father because it is not safe to know, ” she said.

4. “I had to pack up my things very quickly, ” the girl said.

5. “Why did you choose your diary and old letters? ” Dad asked her.

6. Mum asked her if/whether she was very hot with so many clothes on.

7. Margot asked her what else she had got.

8. Anne asked her father when they would go back home.

9. Anne asked her sister how she could see her friends.

10. Mother asked Anne why she had gone to bed so late the night before.

→Step 5 Correcting mistakes

Analyze the common mistakes students have made during the practice. Let the students look at the screen and pay attention to these sentences. Then choose the right sentence and make it clear why the other one is wrong.

→Step 6 A game

Play a guessing game “who is my secret friend? ” One student comes to the front with his partner. The rest students ask him questions while his partner changes them into indirect speech. In the end, the person who has guessed the right answer can come to the front to take the place of the first student. So the game goes on.

Suggested sentences:

Can your friend speak?

What does he/she wear today?

Is he/she tall or short?

What do you and your friend do in your free time?

Do you quarrel with each other?

.→Step 7 Workbook

Do Exercise 1 in Using Structures on Page 42. Here is another page of Anne’s diary. Read it through and then use indirect speech to retell the story.

If time doesn’t permit, declare it as homework.

Suggested answers:

Anne said that they went quickly upstairs and into the hiding place when they arrived at Prinsengracht. She said that they closed the door behind them and they were alone. She said (that)Margot had come faster on her bicycle and was already waiting for them. She said (that)all the rooms were full of boxes and they lay on the floor and the beds. She said (that)the little room was filled with bedclothes and they had to start clearing up at once, if they wished to sleep in comfortable beds that night. Anne said (that)her mother and Margot were not able to help. She said (that)they were tired and lay down on their beds, but her daddy and she, the two “Helpers” of the family, started at once.

Anne said (that)they unpacked the boxes, filled the cupboards and tidied the whole day, until they were extremely tired. She said they did sleep in clean beds that night. She said they hadn’t had any warm food to eat all day, but they didn’t care. Anne said (that)her mother and Margot were too tired and worried to eat, and her daddy and she were too busy.

→Step 8 Homework

1. Finish off the related Workbook exercises.

2. Review and grasp the rules of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech.

板书设计

Unit 1 Friendship

Grammar

Direct Speech and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech

Indirect Speech

1. Mary said, “I am very happy to help you. ”

Mary said that she was very happy to help you.

2. He asked me, “Do you like playing basketball? ”

He asked me if/whether I liked playing basketball.

3. My sister asked me, “What do you think of the film? ”

My sister asked me what I thought of the film.

4. The teacher told his students, “The earth goes round the sun. ”

The teacher told his students that the earth goes round the sun.

活动与探究

Get the students to work in groups of four out of class and design a questionnaire to find out what kind of friends your classmates are. The purpose of this activity is to encourage students to think independently and act in matters of immediate concern and interest. It also can develop students’ design ability and spirit of cooperation.

Sample questionnaire

Directions:

This questionnaire has four questions. Each question is followed by three possible answers. Please read the questions, and then consider which response fits you best.

Questions:

1. Why am I close friends with this person now?

A. Because he/she is someone I really enjoy sharing emotions and special events with.

B. Because my friend would be upset if I ended the relationship.

C. Because being friends with him/her helps me feel important.

2. Why do I spend time with my friend?

A. Because my friend would get mad at me if I didn’t.

B. Because it is fun spending time with him/her.

C. Because I think it is what friends are supposed to do.

3. Why do I listen to my friend’s problems, or to what my friend has to say?

A. Because my friend praises me and makes me feel good when I do.

B. Because it’s interesting and satisfying to be able to share like that.

C. Because I really value getting to know my friend better.

4. Why do I keep promises to my friend?

A. Because I believe it is an important personal quality to live up to my promises to a friend.

B. Because it would threaten our friendship if I were not trustworthy.

C. Because I would feel bad about myself if I didn’t.

Scoring Sheet:

1. A 3 B 2 C 1

2. A 1 B 2 C 3

3. A 1 B 2 C 3

4. A 3 B 2 C 1

Explanations:

4~6 points:You are not a good friend. You either neglect your friend’s needs or just do what he/she wants you to do. You should think more about what a good friend needs to do.

7~9 points:You are a good friend but you sometimes let your friendship become too important, or you fail to show enough concern for your friend’s needs and feelings. Try to strike a balance between your friend’s needs and your own responsibilities.

10+ points:You are an excellent friend who recognizes that to be a good friend you need to balance your needs and your friend’s. Well done.

备课资料

1. 小诗一首

My Friend

My Friend when I think of you.

I think of all that we’ve been through.

All the times we argue and fight,

I know deep inside that it isn’t right.

I, then feel bad and a lot of pain.

It feels like I’ve fallen from the sky like the rain.

I love you dear friend with all of my heart.

But now that you’re gone I’ve fallen apart.

I’m getting better as the days go by.

I wish sometimes this was all a big lie.

I pray to you every night.

It’s like you’re my fire, a burning light.

My dear friend, I miss you a lot.

I still wonder why you were put in that spot.

I know you’re in a place much better than here.

Watching and helping me with all of my fear.

Our friendship my dear friend,

We will have to the end.

Friends till the end is what we will be.

Someday we’ll be together,

together you and me.

 2. 美国著名思想家爱默生谈友谊和友情

The only way to have a friend is to be one.

唯一能获得朋友的方法就是自己先有友道。

Friendship is both a source of pleasure and a component of a good health.

友谊既是快乐之源泉,又是健康之要素。

Friendship is an essential ingredient in the making of a healthful rewarding life.

友谊是使人的一生健康而有意义所不可缺少的组成部分。

Some components of a thriving friendship are honesty, naturalness, thoughtfulness, some common interests.

确保友谊长青的诸要素是:诚实、朴实自然、体贴和某些共同的兴趣。

Betraying a trust is a very quick and painful way to terminate a friendship.

背信弃义会迅速而痛苦地断送友谊。

Throughout life, we rely on small groups of people for love, admiration, respect, moral support and help.

整个人生,我们都有赖于从一些人群中获得友爱、赏识、尊重、道义支持和帮助。

With close friends in their lives, people develop courage and positive attitudes. Teenagers have the moral support to assert their individuality; the elderly approach their advanced years with optimism and an interest in life.

生活中有挚友,人们就能鼓起勇气,变得积极。年轻人就有精神支柱来表现自己的个性;中老年人则会怀着乐观主义和生活情趣步入晚年。

When something sensational happens to us, sharing the happiness of the occasion with friends intensifies our joy. Conversely, in times of trouble and tension, when our spirits are low, unburdening our worries and fears to compassionate friends alleviates the stress.

欣逢喜事,与朋友分享其乐,喜上加喜。反之,身处逆境,情绪颓丧,向富有同情心的朋友倾诉愁苦才会减轻痛苦。

3. 同步阅读

Friendship

Friendship is the relationship between persons who can help each other in need and who have much in common. Friendship can make people happy and successful. In my opinion, friendship is one of the most precious things we have for several reasons. First, we can lead a happy life if we have some friends to share feelings, for joy that is shared will be doubled and sorrow shared will be reduced. For instance, I felt a little lonely during my first days after I came to college because it was my first time to be away from my family and away from my old friends. I often felt worried about my study and life. Later, I made friends with some of my fellow students. We talked about our ambitions, the way how to improve ourselves and how to contribute to society. Through our heart-to-heart talks, we got to know each other well and became eager to help each other. And from then on, whenever I am in trouble, I always have someone to turn to. Now I don’t feel lonely any more but feel that life is really meaningful and enjoyable. Second, the company of friends can help us win success. It is well known that the friendship between Karl Marx and Engels largely contributed to their great success. Besides great figures, common people can also benefit a great deal from their friendship. For example, in the second year of my college, we were required to take the yearly test for English Majors (Band Four). It is a difficult national examination. While I was preparing for it, I felt very worried. But my friends and I helped and encouraged each other. As a result, we all passed the test with good scores.

Moreover, friendship has influence on our personalities. To win friendship we should have a pleasant manner. And to keep the friendship that we have obtained we ought to be self-disciplined (自律)and learn to be considerate(体谅). If everybody has friends and knows how to keep friendship, personalities of people will be improved and the whole society will be in harmony(和谐).

So we can say that friendship can do good not only to individuals but also to society, and the world that is full of friendship will be full of love and hope.

Friends again—forever!

Mary Allen was my best friend—like the sister I never had. We did everything together:piano lessons, movies, swimming, horseback riding and so on.

When I was 13, my family moved away. Mary and I kept in touch through letters, and we saw each other on special occasions—like my wedding and Mary’s. Soon we were busy with children and moving to new homes, and we wrote less often. One day a card that I sent came back stamped “Address Unknown”. I had no idea to find Mary.

Over the years, I thought of Mary often. I wanted to share stories of my children and then grandchildren. And I needed to share my sorrow when my brother and then my mother died.

There was an empty place in my heart that only a friend like Mary could fill.

One day I was reading the newspaper when I noticed a photo of a young woman who looked a lot like Mary and whose last name was Wagman—Mary’s married name. “There must be thousands of Wagmans, ” I thought, but I wrote to her anyway.

She called as soon as she got my letter. “Mrs. Tobin! ” she said excitedly, “Mary Allen Wagman is my mother. ”Minutes later I heard a voice that I recognized at once, even after 40 years. We laughed and cried and caught up on each other’s lives.

Now the empty place in my heart is filled. And there is one thing that Mary and I know for sure:We won’t lose each other again!

 

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