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Unit4 Earthquakes1  

2009-12-10 13:29:52|  分类: 高一英语必修1 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Period 1 Warming up and Reading

 

一.教学内容分析

本单元话题为“地震”,主要描写了1976年唐山大地震,各项语言活动也都是围绕地震展开。本单元共分八个部分。

Warming-up 部分通过两张图片引出话题“一旦地震发生,将会造成怎样的危害”,为后面的主题作了一个热身运动。

Pre-reading 部分设置了两个开放性问题,目的是增加学生的生活常识,提高他们的应变能力。这部分为接下来的阅读作了很好的铺垫,学生可通过套乱,参阅有关地震的书籍并运用一些生活常识来回答这两个问题。Reading 部分具体描写了1976年唐山大地震的震前、震中和震后。作者详细描述了地震来临前的一些不正常的自然现象及动物的反常表现;地震的来势汹汹并在顷刻间将整座城市夷为平地;震后人们勇敢面对现实并及时实施抢救和重建工作。Comprehending 部分包括三组练习,主要目的是为了帮助学生更好地理解Reading部分的文章。

Learning about Language 部分分为两个部分:Discovering useful words and expressions 和Discovering useful structures.第一部分要求学生在把握文章的基础上,掌握重点词汇的词义及时用,这更注重培养学生运用上下文猜测词义的能力。其次还对一些复杂的数字读法进行了检测。第二部分则结合文章学习定语从句。

Using Language 部分分为Reading,Writing and Speaking;Listening和Writing。Reading,Speaking 包括读一篇邀请函,写一份演讲稿和关于一套新唐山邮票的Little talk。Listening 部分讲述了一位地震幸存者的故事,并根据听力材料进行正误判断和回答问题,旨在培养学生获取细节的能力,并通过听来模仿标准的语音和语调。Writing部分要求学生报纸写一篇新闻报道,学习如何按照规范的步骤进行写作,如选择适当地标题和组织语言等。另外这一部分也培养学生写作时注意标题、主旨大意和细节。

Summing up部分帮助学生整理、巩固本单元所学到的知识,包括学到的关于地震的知识,有用的动词、名词、表达方式和新的语法项目。Learning Tip部分就听英语方面给出了一些建议,建议学生多听广播或电视里的英语节目.

 

二.教学目标和要求

根据《英语新课程标准》关于总目标的具体描述,结合高一学生实际和教材内容,我们将教学目标分为语言知识、语言技能、学习策略、情感态度、文化意识五个方面。

1.知识目标(Knowledge)

① 词汇(Vocabulary):shake, rise, crack, burst, well, smelly, pond, steam, destroy, ruin, injure, survivor, brick, useless, shock, quake, rescue, electricity,

disaster, organize, bury, coal, mine, shelter, fresh, percent, honor, prepare.

② 短语(Phrases and expressions):right away, at an end, lie in ruins, be trapped under sth, to the north of sp, put up, give out, wake sb up, prepare sth for sth., think little of sth.

③ 语法(Grammar):定语从句(The Attributive Clause).能用英语描述任务的特征、行为等---- 由who/ whom/ whose/ that引导;能用英语描述事物、事件的性质、内容等---- 由which/ that/ whose引导。

2.能力目标(Ability)

    能运用所学语言知识描述地震前兆、危害及震后援救;根据已知信息推测将要听取的材料的内容;提高阅读技能和用英语进行思维、推理、判断的能力; 掌握演讲稿的格式及新闻报道的写作步骤和要点。

3. 情感目标Affect

学习唐山人民勇敢面对自然灾害,积极进行灾后重建的精神;在教学活动中培养学生的合作精神和互助精神。

 

三.教学重点和难点

1重点词汇:injure,survivor, shock, rescue, disaster, fresh, judge, prepare

2语法:The Attributive Clause

3难点: 运用所学知识表达自己的想法; 较长句子成分的划分及意义的理解; 如何能就课文内容完成一些开放性的话题讨论,能把课文的内容得以延伸与拓展;指导学生通过各种渠道如报纸、杂志、图书馆和网络等资源查找有关素材,培养信息社会收集查找资料的能力。

 

Teaching goals:

1.      Get a general idea of earthquakes and some other natural disasters;

2.      Train students’ listening ability and try to improve their pronunciation;

3.      Know the damage that an earthquake and other disasters could bring about and ways to reduce the losses of an earthquake.

Teaching important points:

Train the students’ listening ability and improve pronunciation.

Teaching aids:

A tape recorder; the blackboard; CIA课件

 

地震,特别是强烈地震之前,总会 出现一些异常现象,人们把与地震 发生有密切联系的异常现象称之为 地震的前兆。

下面这首民谣是群众在长期预测 地震中的总结,细读一下,对观察地 震是有极大好处的。  

Unit4 Earthquakes1 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

震前动物有预兆,群测群防很重要。  

牛羊骡马不进圈,猪不吃食狗乱咬。  

鸭不下水岸上闹,鸡乱上树高声叫。  

冰天雪地蛇出洞,大猫携着小猫跑。  

兔子竖耳蹦又撞,鱼跃水面惶惶跳。  

蜜峰群迁闹轰轰,鸽子惊飞不回巢。  

家家户户都观察,综合异常作预报。

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes1 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes1 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

 唐山大地震前兆

   失去“理性”的飞虫、鸟类

     1976年7月25日,唐山以南天津大沽口 海面,“长湖”号油轮四周海面,一大群 深绿色翅膀的蜻蜓栖在船窗、桅杆和船

舷上,一动不动任人捕捉驱赶。 天津市郊木场公社和西营门公社都 看见成百上千只蝙蝠,大白天在空中飞。

 

动物界逃亡大迁徙

      1976年7月25日上午,抚宁县100多 只黄鼠狼,大的背着或叼着小的从古 墙洞钻出,向村内大转移。26日、27 日,这群黄鼠狼继续向村外转移,一 片惊慌气氛。

 

不可捉摸的信息

     秦皇岛附近水域作业的潜水员说, 他看见一条彩色绚丽的光带,像一条 金色的火龙,转瞬即逝。 1976年7月27日,唐山北部一个军 营里,几个士兵发现地下的一堆钢 筋,莫名其妙地迸发出闪亮的光,仿 佛一个隐身人在那里烧电焊。

 

汶川地震的前兆

 《华西都市报》5月10日报道,四川绵竹市西南镇檀木村出现大规模蟾蜍迁徙,数十万蟾蜍拥挤着走上了马路。面对这一异常现象,村民们普遍表示担扰,害怕可能是地震或其他自然灾害的预兆。

 

 

地震来临, 我们如何保护自己呢?

 震前应做哪些准备?地震来临, 在民房中、在公共场所怎么避震? 专家提出,学习必要的防震知识, 提高防震意识,做好防震准备, 对更好地保护身处险境的自己大 有好处。

 地震前应做好防震准备,如清理杂物,保持门口、楼道畅通;固定高大家具,将重物下置,防止倾倒伤人;准备电筒、创可贴、水等物品,做成家庭防震包;腾空牢固家具的下方,以备藏身。 地震来临时,最重要的是要保持冷静,并灵活选择藏身之所:震时应就近躲避,震后迅速撤离到安全地方;室内避震时应选择易于形成三角空间的地方避震,如内墙墙根、墙角等,或躲避到厨房、厕所、储藏室等空间小的地方。震时切记不要站到阳台上和窗边。 学生在教室上课时遇到地震, 老师应疏导学生迅速抱头躲在课桌 旁,待地震过后迅速撤离;在操场的 学生可原地蹲下,注意避开附近高 大建筑物或危险物,不要回到教室中。

在商场、影剧院等公共场所遇到 地震时,应尽快找到结实的柜台、低 矮家具或柱子边、内墙角等处就地蹲 下,同时注意预防高空落物伤人 .

 在户外遇到地震时,应就地选择开 阔地蹲下,并注意避开变压器、电线 杆、广告牌、高烟囱、水塔、过街桥、 立交桥等构筑物。

Teaching procedures:

Step1. Lead-in

----video of different natural disasters

T: Our hometown is a place full of a kind of disasters. What is it?

  Typhoon, earthquake, hurricane tsunami, flood, tornado, drought…are all called natural disasters.

Q. what damage will they bring about?

  ---- everything in ruins/ death/ losses…

Step2. Introduction of Earthquakes (Let students get the general idea of earthquake)

Q: what do you know about earthquake? What causes quakes and where do they often happen?              How to predict an earthquake?

Q: How to avoid being hurt?? ----through games

Q: Have you heard of any land earthquakes?

----Two pictures in warming-up:

Tangshan Earthquake and San Francisco Earthquake.

Q: What do you know about these two earthquakes?

Step3: Listening

1.      Pre-listening

----brief introduction of San Francisco Earthquake

Q: When did the quake happen?

---- 1906

Q: what damage did bring about?

---- About 700 people died in the earthquake and the fires. And as many as 250,000 people lost homes…

2.      While-Listening

----according to the exercises in the text book

3. Post-listening

  ----How can we reduce the damage of earthquake? What can we do?

Step4: Homework

---- preview the reading “A Night the Earth didn’t Sleep” and learn new words of this unit

 

 

 备课资料

同步阅读

Tangshan:The Deadliest Earthquake

From Jennifer Rosenberg

At 3:42 a. m. on July 28, 1976, a magnitude 7. 8 earthquake hit the sleeping city of Tangshan, in northeastern China. The very large earthquake, striking an area where it was totally unexpected, obliterated the city of Tangshan and killed over 240 000 people—making it the deadliest earthquake of the twentieth century.

Fireballs and Animals Give Warning

Though scientific earthquake prediction is in its nascent stages, nature often gives some advance warning of an impending earthquake.

In a village outside of Tang shan, well water reportedly rose and fell three times the day before the earthquake. In another village, gas began to spout out the water well on July 12 and then increased on July 25th and 26th. Other wells throughout the area showed signs of cracking.

Animals also gave a warning that something was about to happen. One thousand chickens in Baiguantuan refused to eat and ran around excitedly chirping. Mice and yellow weasels were seen running around looking for a place to hide. In one household in the city of Tang shan, a goldfish began jumping wildly in its bowl. At 2 a. m. on July 28, shortly before the earthquake struck, the goldfish jumped out of its bowl. Once its owner had returned him to his bowl, the goldfish continued to jump out of its bowl until the earthquake hit.

Strange? Indeed. These were isolated incidents, spread across a city of a million people and a countryside scattered with villages. But nature gave additional warnings.

The night preceding the earthquake, July 27-28, many people reported seeing strange lights as well as loud sounds. The lights were seen in a multitude of hues. Some people saw flashes of light; others witnessed fireballs flying across the sky. Loud, roaring noises followed the lights and fireballs. Workers at the Tangshan airport described the noises as louder than that of an airplane.  

The Earthquake Strikes

When the 7. 8 magnitude earthquake struck Tangshan at 3:42 a. m. on July 28, over a million people lay sleeping, unaware of the disaster that was to befall them. As the earth began to shake, a few people who were awake had the forethought to dive under a table or other heavy piece of furniture, but most were asleep and did not have time. The entire earthquake lasted approximately 14 to 16 seconds.

Once the quake was over, the people who could, scrambled out into the open, only to see the entire city leveled. After an initial period of shock, the survivors began to dig through debris to answer the muffled calls for help as well as find loved ones still under rubble. As injured people were saved from under the rubble, they were lain on the side of the road. Many of the medical personnel were also trapped under debris or killed by the earthquake. The medical centers were destroyed as well as the roads to get there.

Survivors were faced with no water, no food, and no electricity.

All but one of the roads into Tangshan was not drivable. Unfortunately, relief workers accidentally clogged the one remaining road, leaving them and their supplies stuck for hours in the traffic jam.

People needed help immediately; survivors could not wait for help to arrive. Survivors formed groups to dig for others. They set up medical areas where emergency procedures were conducted with the minimum of supplies. They searched for food and set up temporary shelters.

Though 80 percent of the people trapped under rubble were saved, a 7. 1 magnitude aftershock that hit in the afternoon of July 28 sealed the fate for many who had been waiting under the rubble for help.

After the earthquake hit, 242 419 people lay dead or dying, along with another 164 581 people who were severely injured. In 7218 households, all members of the family were killed by the earthquake.

Corpses were buried quickly, usually close to the residences in which they perished. This later caused health problems, especially after it rained and the bodies were again exposed. Workers had to find these impromptu graves, dig up the bodies, and then move and rebury the corpses outside of the city.  

Damage and Recovery

Before the 1976 earthquake, scientists didn’t think Tangshan was susceptible to a large earthquake; thus, the area was zoned an intensity level of Ⅵ on the Chinese intensity scale (similar to the Mercalli scale). The 7. 8 earthquake that hit Tangshan was given an intensity level of Ⅺ (out of Ⅻ). The buildings in Tangshan were not built to withstand such a large earthquake.

Ninety-three percent of residential buildings and 78 percent of industrial buildings were completely destroyed. Eighty percent of the water pumping stations were seriously damaged and the water pipes were damaged throughout the city. Fourteen percent of the sewage pipes were severely damaged.

The foundations of bridges gave way, causing the bridges to collapse.

Railroad lines bent. Roads were covered with debris as well as riddled with fissures.

With so much damage, recovery was not easy. Food was a high priority. Some food was parachuted in, but the distribution was uneven. Water, even just for drinking, was extremely scarce. Many people drank out of pools or other locations that had become contaminated during the earthquake. Relief workers eventually got water trucks and others to transport clean drinking water into the affected areas.

After the emergency care was given, the rebuilding of Tangshan began almost immediately. Though it took time, the entire city was rebuilt and is again home to over a million people, earning Tangshan the name “Brave City of China. ”

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