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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

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Unit4 Earthquakes2   

2009-12-10 13:30:39|  分类: 高一英语必修1 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Period 2 Important Language Points 

Do you know any natural disasters (自然灾害) ? Can you name some of them?

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

 

Unit4 Earthquakes2  - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

  汶川地震

 

整体设计

从容说课

This is the second teaching period of this unit. We first check the students’ homework and offer chances for the students to review what they learned during the first period.

The emphasis in this period will be placed on the important new words, expressions and sentence patterns in the parts Warming up, Pre-reading, Reading and Comprehending. In order to make the students understand these important points thoroughly, we can first get the students to understand their meanings in the context, then give some explanations about them, and later offer some practices to make the students master their usages. Some words and expressions, such as shake, injure, destroy, shock, rescue, right away, a great number of, give out are very useful and important. So are the sentence patterns “It seemed that the world was at an end” and “All hope was not lost”. We ought to pay more attention to them and design special exercises.

At the end of the class, the teacher can make the students do more exercises for consolidation. In doing so, they can learn, grasp and use these important language points well.

教学重点

1. Enable the students to grasp the usages of such important new words and expressions as shake, injure, destroy, shock, rescue, right away, a great number of, give out, etc.

2. Get the students to master the usages of the patterns:“It seemed that the world was at an end” and “All hope was not lost”.

教学难点

1. Let the students learn the usage of the word “shake”.

2. Enable the students to master the usage of the pattern “All. . . is not. . . ” and understand some difficult and long sentences.

教学方法

1. Discussing, summarizing and practicing

2. Cooperative learning

教具准备

The multimedia and other normal teaching tools

三维目标

Knowledge aims:

1. Get the students to learn and grasp the important new words and expressions:shakewell (n. ) rise crack smelly burst canal ruin injure destroy useless shockquake rescue electricity disaster army organize bury coal mine shelter freshright away at an end lie in ruins be trapped under sth. a (great)number of

2. Get the students to learn the following useful sentence patterns:

1)But the one million people of the city, who thought little of theses events, went to bed as usual that night.

2)It seemed that the world was at an end!

3)Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves.

4)The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.

5)Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.

6)Never before in history has a city been so completely destroyed.

Ability aims:

1. Enable the students to use some useful words and expressions correctly.

2. Enable the students to make sentences after the useful sentence patterns.

Emotional aim:

1. Stimulate the students’ interest in learning English.

2. Develop the students’ spirit of cooperation and teamwork.

教学过程

设计方案(一)

→Step 1 Revision

1. Check the homework exercises.

2. Ask some students to retell the reading passage A Night the Earth Didn’t Sleep.

→Step 2 Reading and finding

Get the students to read the reading passage again to underline all the new words and useful expressions or collocations in the passage.

Collocations:a smelly gas, come out of, in the farmyards, too nervous to eat, run out of, look for places to hide, jump put of, water pipes, think little of, as usual, It seemed that. . . , at an end, one hundred kilometers away, one-third, eight kilometers long, thirty meters wide, cut across, in ruins, be injured, thousands of, the number of, reach more than 400 000, everywhere, . . . everything was destroyed, be gone, blow away, be not safe for, tens of thousands of, give milk, half a million, millions of, instead of, be shocked, later that afternoon, be trapped under the ruins, fall down, All. . . is/was not. . . , hundreds of thousands of, dig out, the dead, to the north of, coal mines, built shelters, fresh water

Read them aloud and copy them down in the exercise book after class.

→Step 3 Discovering useful words and expressions

Do the exercises in Discovering useful words and expressions on Page 28.

Explain the problems the students meet while checking the answers.

→Step 4 Language Points

1. shake vt. & vi(shook, shaken)

1)(cause sb. /sth. to)move quickly and often jerkily from side to side or up and down(使某人或某物)急速摇动或颠簸

 The table shook when she banged her fist on it.  她用拳头把桌子敲得直颤。

The house shook as the heavy truck went past.   重载的卡车经过时,房子摇晃起来。

2)(of a person)tremble; quiver(指人)发抖,打战

They laughed until their sides shook when they heard the joke.   这个笑话笑得他们浑身直颤。

The little boy was shaking with cold.   那个小男孩冻得发抖。

3)disturb the calmness of sb. ; trouble or shock sb. 使某人心绪不宁;烦扰或惊吓某人

This surprising development quite shook me.    这一惊人的新情况把我吓坏了。

4)make(sth. )less certain; weaken belief, etc. 动摇某人的想法;减弱

Her new theory has been shaken by this new evidence.   这一新证据动摇了她的新理论。

5)(of sb. ‘s voice)become weak or faltering; tremble(指某人的嗓音)变弱,发颤,颤抖

His voice shook(with emotion)as he announced the news.他宣布这一消息时,声音(因激动)有些颤抖。

shake&tremble:

在表示“(因恐惧、愤怒、寒冷、体弱等)战栗,震颤,发抖”时,shake和tremble可相互替换;但指握手、摇头或捧腹大笑时,用shake。另外,tremble只用作不及物动词。

The poor boy was shaking/trembling with cold.  这个孩子正冻得发抖。

The host shook hands with all the guests.   主人跟所有的客人握手。

2. rise vi. (rose, risen)(of the sun, moon, stars, etc. )appear above the horizon; go up(指日月星辰等的)升起;上升

The sun rises at seven o’clock.   太阳七点钟升起。

Prices have risen steadily during the past ten years.   过去十年间物价一直在稳定地上涨。

He rose from his chair and began his speech.   他从椅子上站起来开始了他的演说。

rise&raise:

rise是不及物动词,而raise是及物动词,意思是“抬高;提高”。

The people’s living standard has greatly been raised.

人民的生活水平已大大地提高了。

The price of eggs has risen/been raised recently.

鸡蛋的价格最近上涨了。

3. burst vi. & vt. (burst, burst)(cause sth. to)break open or apart; explode(使某物)爆炸;胀破;爆破

I’ve eaten so much I feel ready to burst.   我吃得太多,肚子都要撑破了。

Don’t get so angry! You’ll burst a blood-vessel!   别生这么大的气!你会把血管气崩的!

burst in/into enter(a room, etc. )suddenly突然进入(房间等)

burst into sth. send out or produce sth. suddenly and violently突然而猛烈的发出或产生某事物

burst out doing. . . suddenly begin doing. . . 突然开始做某事

The police burst in/into the room and arrested that gang.   警察突然闯进房门逮捕了那帮人。

The plane crashed and burst into flames.   飞机坠毁起火。

All of them burst into laughter/tears/song.,   他们全都突然笑起来/哭起来/唱起来。

All of them burst out laughing/crying/singing.   他们全都突然笑起来/哭起来/唱起来。

完成下列句子:

1)因为大于大坝决口了。The dam__________ ___________ __________the heavy rain.

2)听众席上爆发出一片笑声。The audience__________ _______________ _________________  .

答案:1)burst because of 2)burst into laughter

4. injure vt. to hurt oneself/sb. /sth. physically 伤害,损害,受伤

She was badly injured in an accident during the work.   她在一次工伤事故中受了重伤。

harm, hurt, injure & wound:

harm用于指肉体或精神上的伤害均可,有时可指引起不安或不便,还可用于抽象事物,尤其是指不道德的事情;hurt为一般用语,既可指肉体上的伤害,也可指精神上的伤害,还可用作不及物动词,意为“疼痛”;injure一般指由于意外或事故而受伤;wound指外伤(如枪伤、刀伤、剑伤等),尤指在战争、战斗中受伤。

Getting up early won’t harm you.   早起对你没有害处。

There was an unexpected explosion in our street, but our building wasn’t harmed at all.

我们的街道发生了一次意外的爆炸事故,但我们的大楼丝毫没有受损。

Many people were hurt/injured when a bus and a truck collided. 一辆公共汽车和一辆卡车相撞,许多人受了伤。

You’ll hurt her feelings if you forget her birthday.  如果你忘了她的生日,那会伤她感情的。

The soldier got wounded in the arm in the fighting.   这个士兵的胳膊在战斗中受了伤。

The robber______________ him with a knife.

A. harmed B. hurt C. injured D. wounded

答案:D

5. destroy vt. to break to pieces; to make useless; to put an end to摧毁;毁坏;破坏

The fire destroyed all my books.  这场大火毁了我的全部书籍。

Why, you may wonder, should spiders be our friends? Because they destroy so many insects.

你也许会觉得奇怪,蜘蛛怎么竟是我们的朋友?因为它们毁灭那么多的昆虫。

destroy, damage & ruin:

destroy 强调以具有摧毁或杀伤性的力量把某物彻底毁掉;damage一般指对物体或生命的局部损坏;ruin亦指彻底毁掉,但不含有以某种摧毁性的力量进行破坏,而含有在一定的过程中逐渐毁掉的意思。

An atom bomb would destroy a city.  一颗原子弹可以摧毁一座城市。

The earthquake damaged several buildings.   地震使一些建筑受到了破坏。

Oxford has been ruined by the motor industry.   牛津城已经被汽车工业毁掉了。

After the war the Japanese economy lay in______________ .

A. ruin  B. ruins  C. damage  D. destroy

答案:B

6. shock vt. cause a shock to(sb. ); cause(sb. )to feel disgust, horror, etc. 使(某人)震惊;使(某人)感到厌恶、恐惧等

I was shocked when I heard about your accident.   当我听到你出事后我很震惊。

He was shocked by what you said.   他对你说的话感到震惊。

shock, astonish & surprise:

shock表示的吃惊程度最大;astonish语气比surprise要强,含有“令人难以置信”之意;surprise为一般用语,意为“使惊讶,使吃惊”,含有“意想不到”之意。

I was shocked at the news of her death.   我听到她去世的消息十分震惊。

I was astonished to see him in Tibet.   在西藏见到他,我真感到惊异。

I was surprised to see the great changes in my hometown.   看到家乡的巨大变化我惊讶不已。

7. rescue n. an act of rescuing or being rescued 搭救;解救

v. to save or set free from harm, danger, or loss 解救;救出

A rescue team is trying to reach the trapped mines.  一组救援人员在尽力赶向被困的矿井。

We rescued the boy who fell into the river.   我们救起了掉进河里的小孩。

rescue & save:

rescue的含义是搭救受到监禁、攻击或死亡威胁的人,它的内涵是不失时机地以强有力的措施进行搭救;save是一般用语,使用范围很广,它含有 rescue的意思,但是这个词不但有使受难者获救的意思,还具有使获救者继续生存、享受幸福的内涵。 

It was not long before a helicopter arrived on the scene to rescue the survivors of the plane crash.

不久一架直升机飞到了现场来搭救这次飞机失事的幸存者。

For hundreds of years, St Bernard dogs have saved the lives of travelers crossing the dangerous pass.

几百年来,圣伯纳修道院的狗已经搭救了穿越这个险关的许多旅游者的性命。

8. in ruins in a severely damaged or destroyed condition 严重受损;破败不堪;成为废墟

An earthquake left the whole town in ruins.   地震过后全城到处都是颓垣断壁。

His career is/lies in ruins.   他的事业已完全失败。

9. a(great)number of a lot of 许多;若干

I have a number of letters to write.   我有好些信要写。

A great/large number of people have applied.   许多人都已申请。

 →Step 5 Sentence focus

1. But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, went to bed as usual that night.

但是,唐山市的一百万居民几乎都没有把这些情况当一回事,当天晚上照常上床睡觉了。

句子中的who thought little of these events是非限制性定语从句;think little of的意思是“不重视……;认为……没有什么了不起;对……不假思索”,类似的短语还有think better of sb. (对某人印象好;看重某人),think better of sth. (改变念头;打消主意),think highly of(看重;器重),think well of(重视;认为……好),think poorly of(不放在眼里;轻视),think nothing of(轻视;认为……无所谓;认为……没什么了不起),think much of(认为……很不错),think ill of(认为……不好)等;as usual是固定短语,意思是“照常;照例”。

I thought little of what he said at that time.    我对他当时说的话没加思索。

I think much better of him after I have found out his true motive.我发觉他的真实动机后,对他的评价高多了。

The little boy went to school as usual that day.   那天,那个小男孩照常去上学。

1)In Australia, one thinks______________ of riding fifty miles to a dance.

A. nothing  B. something  C. much  D. better

2)Yesterday, he went out to play football______________ .

A. usually  B. as usual  C. usual  D. often

答案:1)A 2)B

2. It seemed that the world was at an end.    世界似乎到了末日。

句子中的at an end是固定短语,意思是“结束;终结”;It seems/seemed(to sb. )+that-clause是常用的固定句型,意思是“好像……;似乎……”。

His career seemed at an end.   他的事业似乎结束了。

It seems that I have seen her before.   我好像以前见过她。

It seems to me that there is something funny about the case.   在我看来这件案子好像有点奇怪。

3. Everywhere they looked nearly everything was destroyed.  人们无论朝哪里看,那里的一切都几乎被毁了。

句子中的Everywhere they looked 是让步状语从句,everywhere用作连词,相当于wherever或no matter where,引导让步状语从句。

Everywhere I go, I find the same thing.   无论我去哪儿,我都看到同样的东西。

You see it everywhere you look.    无论你往哪儿看,你都会看到它。

4. All of the city’s hospitals, 75% of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone.

所有的市内医院、75%的工厂和建筑物、90%的家园都消失了。

该句是“主系表结构”的句子,主语是一个很长的名词短语,其中两处有百分数修饰。有百分数修饰的结构作主语时,谓语动词要根据百分数所修饰的是可数名词还是不可数名词而定。句子中的gone是过去分词,用作表语,意为“消失了;不存在了”,另外它还有“走了”“丢了”“用完了”等意思。

50% of the students in our class are girls.   我们班50%的学生是女生。

Over 70% of the earth surface is covered with water.   地球表面的70%多是水。

His job was gone. 他的工作丢了。

More than 30 %/Nearly one-third of the teachers in our school______________ from other cities in the past.

A. is  B. are  C. was  D. were

答案:D

5. All hope was not lost.   不是所有的希望都破灭了。

这是一个表示部分否定的句子。句型All. . . not. . . 或Not all. . . 均表示部分否定,可翻译成“不是所有的……”或“并非所有的……”。

Not all the girls left. (= Only some of the girls left. )

Not all the children are noisy. (= Some of the children are not noisy. )

注:对两者以上的全部否定应用none of. . . ,其后的谓语动词既可以用单数形式,也可以用复数形式。

We couldn’t eat in a restaurant because_____________ of us had____________ money on us.

A. all; no   B. any; no   C. none; any   D. no one; any

答案:C

6. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.

救援人员组成小分队,将被困的人挖出来,将死者掩埋。

句子中的who were trapped 是定语从句。当先行词是those, anybody, he等表示人的词时,定语从句习惯用who来引导,不能用that代替。

Those who want to see the film write your names on the paper. 想看电影的人把你们的名字写在这张纸上。

Anybody who breaks the law will be punished.   任何人犯法都要受到惩罚。

He who laughs last laughs best.   谁笑在最后,谁笑得最好。

7. To the north of the city, most of the 10 000 miners were rescued from the coal mines.

在城市的北边,有一个万名矿工的煤矿,其中多数人得救了。

在表示位置关系时,通常in表示在范围内;to表示在范围外(不接壤);on表示接壤(在范围外)。

China lies in the east of Asia.  中国位于亚洲东部。

Japan lies to the east of China.   日本位于中国的东面。

China faces the Pacific on the east.   中国东临太平洋。

8. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.

救援人员为那些家园被毁的幸存者盖起了避难所。

句子中whose homes had been destroyed是定语从句,whose是关系代词,代替先行词survivors在定语从句中作定语,相当于of whom,这个定语从句也可改为of whom homes had been destroyed或homes of whom had been destroyed。

He doesn’t want to hire the boy whose father is in prison.  他不想雇佣那个父亲还在坐牢的男孩子。

Anne was a Jewish girl whose diary has been read widely all over the world.

安妮是一个犹太女孩,她的日记在全世界广为传诵。

→Step 6 Workbook

Do the exercises in Using words and expressions on Page 63.

→Step 7 Consolidation

Ask the students to do the following exercises for consolidation.

1. 单词拼写:根据首字母或中文提示写出所缺的单词。

1)The mining disaster s       the whole country.

2)If you put a cold glass into hot water, it will b      .

3)Twenty miners were t       underground after the fire.

4)So many d        happened to them in a single year that they could hardly live on.

5)The firemen r        three women and five children from the burning house.

6)I was______________(震惊)to hear that one of my students drowned while swimming.

7)Smoking will______________(损害)your health.

8)The forest was______________(烧毁)by the great fire.

9)Don’t eat that food. It is already______________(发臭的).

10)If there were no______________(电), what would we do?

2. 根据中文提示完成下面的句子。

1)I don’t know when their party will be_________ ____________ ___________  (结束).

2)It is said that they have_________ _____________ (挖出)a lot of treasure from the tomb.

3)After the big fire, all of their houses were_________ ___________ (成为废墟).

4)His wife’s death was_________ _____________ ____________ (沉重的打击)for him.

5)Sand now filled the wells________ ___________ _________ (而不是)water.

6)The days when the Chinese had to obey others____________ _____________ _________________  (一去不复返)forever.

7)____________ ________________ (成千上万个)families were killed and many children were left without parents.

8)When I told her the bad news, Helen_________ ___________ ___________ ___________  (顿时泪水夺眶而出).

9)Mice ran out of the fields____________ __________ _____________ ____________ _______________ (找地方藏身).

10)Such____________ _____________ ____________ ___________ (大批的)people died because the quake happened while they were sleeping.

3. 根据要求翻译下列各句。

1)好像他们已经知道了选举的结果。(It seems that. . . )

2)据报道,我是吸烟人数已达100万。(the number of; reach)

3)日本位于我国的东边。(to)

4)你知道有多少游客被困在那座岛上吗?(be trapped)

5)众所周知,我国百分之八十的人口是农民。(80 % )

6)我们班三分之二的学生去过北京。(two-thirds)

7)我的钢笔不见了。(be gone)

8)并非所有的人都喜欢吃肉。(Not all. . . )

Suggested answers:

1. 1)shook或shocked 2)burst 3)trapped 4)disasters 5)rescued 6)shocked7)injure 8)destroyed 9)smelly 10)electricity

2. 1)at an end 2)dug out 3)in ruins 4)a great shock 5)instead of 6)have been gone7)Thousands of 8)burst into tears 9)looking for places to hide 10)a great number of

3. 1)It seems that they have already known the result of the election.

2)It is reported that the number of smokers in our city has reached 100 million.

3)Japan is/lies to the east of our country.

4)Do you know how many visitors are trapped on the island?

5)It is well known that 80 % of the population of our country are peasants.

6)Two-thirds of the students in our class have been to Beijing.

7)My pen is gone.

8)Not all people like eating meat. /All people don’t like eating meat.

→Step 8 Homework

1. Finish off the Workbook exercises. Write down Exercise 2 in the exercise book.

2. Learn the new words and expressions by heart.

设计方案(二)

→Step 1 Revision

1. Check the homework exercises.

2. Ask some students to retell the reading passage A Night the Earth Didn’t Sleep.

→Step 2 Reading and finding

 Read through the first paragraph carefully and then answer the following questions:

1.What were happening in the countryside in northeast Hebei province? (Para.1)

2.  What were people doing when the earthquake     happened?

  Most of them were sleeping that night.

3. Why the people did not notice these events?

 They never thought there would be an earthquake soon. / They knew little about earthquake.

 

True or false:

1.Two-third of the nation felt the earthquake.  (   F )

2. All the people in Tangshan died or were injured during the earthquake.  (   F    )

3.All of the city’s hospitals, factories, buildings  and homes were damaged in the earthquake.    (     F   )

4. Later that afternoon, a terrible earthquake   shook Tangshan again.  (   T    )

5. After the second earthquake, everyone   including the rescue workers and doctors    were died.  (  F      )

6. People slept outdoors after the earthquake.     (     T    )

Get the students to read the reading passage again to underline all the new words and useful expressions or collocations in the passage.

 

→Step 3 Discovering useful words and expressions

Do the exercises in Discovering useful words and expressions on Page 28.

Explain the problems the students meet while checking the answers.

→Step 4 Language Points

Explain to students some important new words and useful expressions and do some related exercises.

→Step 5 Sentence focus

Explain to students some difficult long sentences and the important language points in them.

→Step 6 Workbook

Do the exercises in Using words and expressions on Page 63.

→Step 7 Consolidation

Do some consolidation exercises.

→Step 8 Homework

1. Finish off the Workbook exercises. Write down Exercise 2 in the exercise book.

2. Learn the new words and expressions by heart.

 

板书设计

Unit 4 Earthquakes

Important Language Points

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

活动与探究

How to help the orphans in the earthquake

As the news report in the part Reading mentioned, many children were left without parents in the earthquake. The government and a lot of kind-hearted people did all they could to bring up these poor and young orphans. Discuss with your partner some ways to help the orphans.

备课资料

Background knowledge

1. Tangshan, China, M8. 2 Earthquake

On July 28, 1976, at 3:42 am local time, a powerful earthquake registering M8. 2 occurred in northeastern China about 95 miles east of Beijing near Tangshan, an industrial city of about 1 million people. Many eyewitnesses said they saw a bright light flash across the sky, which was followed by a deafening roar just before the shaking began. Vigorous shaking lasted for several seconds. Strong aftershocks followed and about 18 hours later another powerful M7. 6 earthquake struck just outside Tangshan. Buildings that were partially damaged during the first earthquake were wrecked by the second and many participating in rescue workers were killed. The city was totally destroyed with few buildings left standing. Officially, the Chinese government estimated between 240 000 and 250 000 people were killed with an additional 600 000 injured, making this the most deadly quake in the twentieth century. The quake was centered along the Tancheng-Lujiang or Tan-Lu fault(断层面), a large north-northeast-south-southwest fault system which extends for over 3200 miles from the north bank of the Yangtze River in eastern China across the Russian border.  

2. Early Success for Tangshan Earthquake

Qinglong County administrators combined scientific data, public education, extensive preparation and speedy country-wide communication to prevent a human tragedy in the 1976 Great Tangshan Earthquake(GTE). In a unique combination of science and public administration, public officials in this county prevented loss of life from the earthquake while in surrounding counties more than 240 000 people were killed.

In Qinglong County, more than 180 000 buildings were destroyed by the GTE; over 7000 of these totally collapsed. However, only one person died, and he died of a heart attack. Five hours after the earthquake, Qinglong County(115 km from Tangshan City)dispatched the first medical team to the disaster zone, and within a very short time they organized and sent relief teams to Tangshan to help with rescue work and transport of the wounded. The “UN Global Programme for the Integration of Public Administration and the Science of Disasters” is attempting to inform public administrators and scientists about what happened in Qinglong event in order to help communities learn to save themselves from disasters through early monitoring, communication and public education.  

3. Killers in Earthquakes

In 1556 an estimated 830 000 people died in Shanxi, China, when their fragile stone houses collapsed on them as they slept. As in almost every deadly earthquake, poorly constructed buildings were the killers. Even a moderate quake striking in the middle of the night in a region where people build stone buildings without cement, as in Shanxi, can be catastrophic. On the other hand, the massive New Madrid earthquakes in Missouri in the winter of 1812 were not killers because the few people living in Missouri at the time had homes built mostly of wood.  

4. Dangerous Ground

Buildings crashes to the ground in seconds. Thousands of people lose their lives in a flash. Since they were told an earthquake would hit Tokyo around September 16, Japanese people haven’t been able to get these thoughts out of their minds.

They heard the news from Yoshio Kushida, a researcher who used radio waves to predict that an earthquake would strike with a magnitude of at least seven. “It would be terrible not to warn people of possible disaster in case a quake actually occurs, ” He said.

His warning had a big effect. Frightened Tokyo People have been stocking up on water, food and candles in preparation for the terrible day.

But Kushida hasn’t had much support from the experts. At present, predicting earthquakes is thought to be impossible. No one can tell exactly where or when the next major earthquake will occur. An earthquake begins tens of miles below the earth’s surface; it’s too far away to see. Ancient Chinese and Italian scientists forecast earthquakes by special “earthquake clouds”. They found that a week before an earthquake there were often strange cloudscapes like snakes, waves or feathers in the sky. They thought the clouds might come from a gas produced underground by an earthquake.

People also used to watch animals to see if earthquakes were coming. When they saw birds flying away suddenly, dogs barking violently or fish jumping out of the water, they told people to leave the area. Some scientists believe animals have a sharper sense of changes taking place underground.

But the ancient methods were not reliable enough. Nowadays, scientists use special instrument to predict earthquakes more precisely.

Satellite systems are very useful. They record small changes in earth’s magnetic fields, which help show where and when an earthquake may strike.  

5. Taking Care

1)indoors

If you are indoors, stay there. Hide under a table and don’t go near things that might fall on you. Stay away from windows or stairs, and keep out of the kitchen. If you are in bed, hold on and stay there, protecting your head with a pillow.

2)outdoors

If you are outdoors, stay out in the open. Keep away from buildings, power lines and anything else that could fall on you.

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