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Unit4 Earthquakes3  

2009-12-10 13:31:39|  分类: 高一英语必修1 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Period 3 Grammar(The Attributive Clause (Ⅰ)

整体设计

从容说课

This is the third teaching period of this unit. To test whether the students have grasped the important and difficult language points they learned in the last period, the teacher should first offer them some revision exercises. The pattern “Not all. . . ”or “All. . . not. . . ” is a bit important, so special exercises should be designed.

This teaching period mainly deals with the grammar:the Attributive Clause introduced by that, which, who and whose. Firstly, the teacher can ask the students to read the text A Night the Earth Didn’t Sleep, tick out the attributive clauses in the reading passage and translate them into Chinese. Secondly, summarize the usages of the Attributive Clause, especially the usages of Relative Pronouns:which, that, who, whom and whose by giving a lot of example sentences. Thirdly, do the exercises in Discovering useful structures on Page 28 and more exercises for students to master the usages of which, that, who, whom and whose.

At the end of the class, ask the students to read the passage A Safe Home and do the exercises in Using structures on Page 64 and additional exercises for consolidation.

教学重点

Get the students to master the Attributive Clause introduced by that, which, who and whose.

教学难点

Enable the students learn how to use that, which, who and whose correctly.

教学方法

1. Task-based teaching and learning

2. Cooperative learning and practice

教具准备

A projector and other normal teaching tools

三维目标

Knowledge aims:

1. Get the students to learn the Attributive Clause introduced by that, which, who and whose.

2. Let the students learn different usages of that, which, who and whose.

Ability aims:

1. Enable the students to use attributive clauses to describe things and persons.

2. Enable the students to know how to choose correct relative pronouns for attributive clauses.

Emotional aims:

1. Get the students to become interested in grammar learning.

2. Develop the students’ sense of group cooperation.

教学过程

设计方案

→Step 1 Revision

1. Check the homework exercises.

2. Dictate some new words and expressions.

3. Translate the sentences:

1)并非所有的竹子都能长高。

2)她们全都不擅长舞蹈。

Suggested answers:

1)Not all bamboo can grow tall. /All bamboo can not grow tall.

2)None of them is/are good at dancing.

→Step 2 Reading and finding

Turn to Page 26 and read the text A Night the Earth Didn’t Sleep. Tick out the attributive clauses in the reading passage and translate them into Chinese.

Suggested answers:

1. But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, went to bed as usual that night.

但是,唐山市的一百万居民当天晚上照常上床睡觉了,他们几乎都没有把这些情况当一回事。

2. It was heard in Beijing, which is one hundred kilometers away.

100千米以外的北京市都听到了地震声。

3. A huge crack that was eight kilometers long and thirty meters wide cut across houses, roads and canals.

一条8千米长30米宽的巨大裂缝横穿房舍、马路和渠道。

4. The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400 000.

死伤的人数达到40多万。

5. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead.

救援人员组成小分队,将被困的人挖出来,将死者掩埋。

6. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed.

救援人员为那些家园被毁的幸存者盖起了避难所。

→Step 3 Summary of the attributive clause

1. 与定语从句相关的概念

什么是定语从句?什么是先行词?什么是关系词?关系词在定语从句中分别起什么作用?

2. 关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词放在定语从句和先行词之间引导定语从句,并代替先行词在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致;关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时可以省略,作其他成分时不能省略。

1)which引导定语从句时,先行词是除人以外的表示事物或动物的名词或代词,在从句中作主语或宾语。

A prosperity which had never been seen before appears in the countryside.

农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which在从句中作主语)

The package(which)you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.

你拿的包裹快散了。(which在从句中作宾语,可以省略)

2)who引导定语从句时,先行词是表示人的名词或代词,在从句中作主语;作宾语时用其宾格whom(在口语中也可用who)。

Is he the man who wants to see you?

他就是想见你的人吗?(who在从句中作主语)

He is the man(whom/who)I saw yesterday.

他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/who在从句中作宾语,可以省略)

3)that引导定语从句时,先行词既可是表人的名词或代词(相当于who/whom),也可是表物的名词或代词(相当于which),在从句中作主语或宾语。

A plane is a machine that/which can fly.

飞机是能飞的机器。

I don’t know the man that/who is reading the newspaper over there.

我不认识在那边读报的男子。

Do you like the book(that/which)you borrowed yesterday?

你喜欢你昨天借的那本书吗?

She is the girl(that/whom/who)you want to know.

她是你想认识的女孩。

4)whose 引导定语从句时,先行词既可是指人的名词,也可是指物的名词,在从句中作定语,相当于of whom或of which。

They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.

那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose cover is green.

请递给我那本绿皮的书。

(如果学生基础较好,语法部分也可用英语讲解。)

Relative Pronouns:which, that, who, whom, whose

What are Relative Pronouns? Relative pronouns are special pronouns which can connect the antecedent and the attributive clause. Also they can be used as a part of the attributive clause. Here are some important differences.

1. which/that:referring to things, can be used as a subject or an object in the attributive clause; when they are used as an object, they can be omitted.

The plane is a machine that/which can fly.

The school(that/which)he visited last week is to the south of the city.

2. that/who/whom:referring to a person, can be used as subject or object in the attributive clause; whom can only be used as an object.

The girl(that/whom/who)we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister.

The man that/who is talking to my father is my math teacher.

3. whose:referring to a person or a thing, can be used as an attribute in the attributive clause.

This is the writer whose name is known all over the world.

The room whose window faces south is mine.

4. Before everything, anything, everybody, anybody, all, the best+n. the first+n. etc. , we use that instead of which.

All(that)I need is time.

This is the largest factory(that)I have ever visited.

The sixth lesson(that)we are learning is the most difficult in Book Two.

5. We can’t use that in a non-restrictive attributive clause or after a preposition.

I have lost the pen, which I like very much.

I have two sisters, who are both teachers.

At last I met the writer of whom I had heard long before.

This is the house in which the famous man was born.

→Step 4 Practice

1. Turn to Page 29. Do Exercise 2 in Discovering useful structure.

2. Fill in the blanks, using which, that, who, whom and whose.

1)The eggs______________ I bought yesterday were not fresh.

2)The friend______________ came to supper last night wasn’t hungry.

3)He prefers the goose______________ comes from his parents’ farm.

4)The noodles______________ you cooked were delicious.

5)He saw a house______________ windows were all broken.

6)I don’t like the people______________ smoke a lot.

7)The man______________ lives next to us sells vegetables.

8)I prefer dumplings______________ have just been cooked.

9)Don’t drink water______________ has not been boiled.

10)Those______________ want to go to the Great Wall write down your names here.

11)The potatoes______________ we ate just now were expensive.

12)The pancakes______________ you had for breakfast were made of corn.

13)He showed a machine______________ parts are too small to be seen.

14)A fish______________ has a bright eye is fresh.

15)You’d better buy vegetables from farmers______________ grow them.

Several minutes later, check the answers with the class.

Suggested answers:

1)(which/that) 2)who/that 3)which/that 4)(which/that) 5)whose

6)who/that 7)who/that 8)which/that 9)which/that 10)who 11)(which/that)12)(which/that) 13)whose 14)which/that 15)who/that

→Step 5 Workbook

Do Exercise 1 and Exercise 2 in Using structures on Page 64.

→Step 6 Consolidation

Show the exercises on the screen.

1. 把下面的两个简单句合并成一个含定语从句的复合句:

1)The man has been caught. He did the robbery.

2)The chair was a broken one. I sat in the chair just now.

3)A plane is a machine. It can fly.

4)Tom is the boy. He damaged the vase yesterday.

5)Mary is the girl. Her English is the best in our class.

6)I wanted to see the woman. She had already left.

7)The one million people of the city went to bed as usual that night.

They thought little of these events.

8)Workers built shelters for survivors.

Their homes had been destroyed in the earthquake.

2. 用定语从句翻译下面的句子:

1)玉米是人和动物都可以食用的植物。

2)我们昨天看的那场电影一点意思也没有。

3)我在商店碰到的那位妇女是我的一位老同学。

4)学习不刻苦的那些人是不会通过这次考试的。

5)我住在窗户朝南的那个房间里。

6)任何人犯法都应受到惩罚。

Check the answers with the class and deal with any problems students meet.

Suggested answers:

1. 1)The man who/that did the robbery has been caught.

2)The chair(which/that)I sat in just now was a broken one.

3)A plane is a machine which/that can fly.

4)Tom is the boy who/that damaged the vase yesterday.

5)Mary is the girl whose English is the best in our class.

6)I wanted to see the woman who/that had already left.

7)The one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, went to bed as usual that night.

8)Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed in the earthquake.

2. 1)Corn is a plant which/that can be eaten by people and animals. /Corn is a plant(which/that)people and animals can eat.

2)The film/movie(which/that)we saw yesterday was not interesting at all.

3)The woman(whom/that/who)I met in the shop was one of my old classmates.

4)Those who don’t work hard won’t pass the examination.

5)I live in the room whose window faces south.

6)Anyone who breaks the law will be punished.

→Step 8 Homework

1. Finish off the workbook exercises.

2. Learn the important grammar points by heart.

板书设计

Unit 4 Earthquakes

Relative Pronouns:which, that, who, whom, whose

What are Relative Pronouns?

 Relative pronouns are special pronouns which can connect the antecedent and the attributive clause. Also they can be used as a part of the attributive clause. Here are some important differences.

1. which/that:referring to things, can be used as a subject or an object in the attributive clause; when they are used as an object, they can be omitted.

The plane is a machine that/which can fly.

The school(that/which)he visited last week is to the south of the city.

2. that/who/whom:referring to a person, can be used as subject or object in the attributive clause; whom can only be used as an object.

The girl(that/whom/who)we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister.

The man that/who is talking to my father is my math teacher.

3. whose:referring to a person or a thing, can be used as an attribute in the attributive clause.

This is the writer whose name is known all over the world.

The room whose window faces south is mine.

4. Before everything, anything, everybody, anybody, all, the best+n. the first+n. etc. , we use that instead of which.

All(that)I need is time.

This is the largest factory(that)I have ever visited.

The sixth lesson(that)we are learning is the most difficult in Book Two.

5. We can’t use that in a non-restrictive attributive clause or after a preposition.

I have lost the pen, which I like very much.

I have two sisters, who are both teachers.

At last I met the writer of whom I had heard long before.

This is the house in which the famous man was born.

 

 

活动与探究

As we all know, the attributive clause is very important. There are many proverbs with attributive clauses. Get online to find some out for you to imitate and remember. You should try to find out at least five ones.

Possible version:

1. All that glitters is not gold.

闪光的并不都是金子。

2. All is well that ends well.

结局好,一切都好。

3. He who laughs last laughs best.

谁笑到最后谁笑得最好。

4. He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man.

不到长城非好汉。

5. He who knows others is learned, and he who knows himself is wise.

知人者智,自知者明。

6. He who loves others is constantly loved, and he who respects others is constantly respected.

爱人者恒爱之,敬人者恒敬之。

7. Gods help those who help themselves.

自助者天助/天助自助之人。

8. Friendship is like sound health, the value of which is seldom known until it is lost.

真正的友谊犹如健康的身体,失去时方知其可贵。

9. The hands that push cradles are the hands that push the world.

推动摇篮的手,就是推动世界的手。

10. Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.

世上无难事,只怕有心人。

备课资料

同步阅读

The Science of Seismology

The study of earthquake recordings is called seismology, and the person who studies these energy waves is known as a seismologist. The machine used to record the seismic waves is a seismometer. Did you know that the first seismometer was invented in China nearly two thousand years ago? Zhang Heng, a scientist of the Han Dynasty, designed it to find out from which directions the seismic waves had come. His design included metal balls and carved dragon’s mouths. A pendulum in the instrument moved when it registered a quake and the balls fell out into the waiting mouths below. In 1902, an Italian geologist Giuseppe Mercalli developed a scale that measured the intensity or amount of shaking and damage to buildings that happened at different locations during an earthquake. Seismologists know that the amount of damage caused by an earthquake depends on how strong it is, how far people or things are from the epicenter where it begins, the kind of rock underground and the design of the buildings. Mercalli used a 12-point scale for his design. Then in 1935, an American called Charles Richter devised a scale based on a modern seismogram. The scale assigns each earthquake a magnitude, or rating, based on the height of the tallest line recorded. Magnitude is the measure or amount of energy released during an earthquake. The Richter scale, as it is popularly known, rates earthquakes to gain a better understanding of their potential danger. In particular, it records body seismic waves(which shake inside the earth)and surface seismic waves(which shake at ground level). These are recorded on machines called seismographs buried deep in the earth and connected to seismic stations. China has 1400 such stations, some of which have recorded the earth’s movement since the early 1960s. With these stations, about one quarter of all earthquakes have been accurately forecast, or predicted. These stations now receive data, or basic information, from satellites that circle the globe and about a hundred now use the latest digital technology.

The Tangshan Earthquake measured 8. 2 on the Richter Scale. Although it was the most destructive of the last century, the most terrible in history probably occurred in Shanxi Province in 1556. Historians estimate that as many as 830 000 people were killed in it. A smaller quake on the scale may in fact cause more damage to people and buildings than a quake with a higher scale rating. For example the Tangshan quake, resulted in far more loss of life and property than the quake that hit Chile in May, 1960. That quake, however, registered 9. 5 on the Richter scale, the highest magnitude ever recorded.

The science of seismology still has a long way to go. Indeed, seismologists themselves admit that the best way to minimize, or keep to a low level, the damage of earthquakes is through public education in schools and community centers.

Here is the Richter Scale:

Less than 3. 5   Quake recorded but not felt

3. 5-5. 4            Usually felt but rarely any damage

5. 5-6. 0            Little damage to strong buildings

                           Big damage to weak buildings

6. 1-6. 9              Some damage within 100 km

7. 0-7. 9              Big damage over a large area

8. 0-larger            Terrible damage over huge area

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