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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Grammar  

2009-08-02 14:49:54|  分类: 高三英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Third Period

Review the adverbial:

I. 独立主格结构在句中一般作状语,表示时间、条件、原因、伴随状况等。

1. 作时间状语

1) My shoes removed, I entered a low-ceilinged room, treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting.=After my shoes were removed, I entered a low-ceilinged room, treading cautiously on the soft tatami matting.(我脱掉鞋子后,走进一间屋顶很低的房间,小心翼翼地踩在柔软的塌塌米垫子上。)

2. 作条件状语

Weather permitting, they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.=If weather permits, they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.(如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。)

3. 作原因状语

The storm drawing near, we had to put off our plan.=As the storm drew near, we had to put off our plan.(由于暴风雨临近,我们只好放弃计划)

4. 作伴随状语

I took out my book, open it, and drawing pictures in it, my teacher looking angry.(老师愤怒地看着我拿出书,打开它,然后开始在上面画画。)

注意:

1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制。例如:A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.(hand前不能加his)劫匪冲进房间,手里拿着刀。

2) 当表示人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分词,不及物动词用过去分词。例如:

He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 他躺在那儿,牙紧咬,双手握拳,两眼直勾勾看着上面。

3)  分词的逻辑主语有两种:一是悬垂分词的逻辑主语,其二是独立主格结构的逻辑主语。在悬垂结构中,分词的逻辑主语就是主句的主语,如果两者不能构成逻辑上的一致关系则该句结构是错误的.如: Seen from the space, the earth look like a blue ball. (从太空看起来,地球像个蓝色的球体。)这个悬垂结构seen from the space =  when the earth is seen, …

Laughing and chatting, the pupils left school for home. 孩子们说说笑笑回家去了。

同上述结构一样,Laughing and chatting = the pupils were laughing and chatting, …

独立主格结构与悬垂结构不同的是独立结构有自己的主语。这个主语有名词或代词通格来表示,放于分词之前,与分词形成逻辑上的主谓关系。例如:

So many comrades being absent, the meeting had to be put off. 这么多同志都缺席了,所以会议只得延期。

We all went home, he remaining behind. 我们都回家了,只有他留在后面。

Weather permitting, we will go for an outing next week. 如果天气许可,我们下周去郊游。

The class (being) over, the teacher dismissed the students. 下课了,老师把学生打发走了。

The job done, we all went home. 工作完成之后,我们就都回家去了。

With the tree grown tall, we get more shade. 随着树的不断长高,树阴也越来越浓密了。

Everything taken into consideration, this plan seems to be more feasible.  把一切考虑在内,这个计划看起来可行。

They worked throughout the night with the lamp lighted. 他们挑灯夜战。

独立主格大体有以下几种结构:

1. 名词(代词)+现在分词、过去分词;

The coward was backing, his face being deathly pale toward another room.(那个胆小鬼向另一个房间退去,脸色煞白。)

2. 名词(代词)+形容词;

The food delicious, I was full.(食物非常可口,我也很饱了。)

3. 名词(代词)+副词;

This little excitement over, nothing was to be done but to return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion.(一阵小小的兴奋过后,除了再去死死地盯着我的哑伴外,别无它事可干了。)

4. 名词(代词)+不定式;

I to go to New York, he asked me not.(我要去纽约,他却要我别去)

5. 名词(代词)+介词短语构成。

The mayor of Hiroshima strode at a leisure pace toward the puzzled journalist, a bunch of flowers in his hands.(广岛市市长双手捧着一束鲜花,迈着方步走向那个迷惑不解的记者。)

另外,我们最常见的独立主格结构是with引导的独立主格结构。比如:Our vicar went to see what was happening with a torch in his arm. 这种用法中的with不表达什么意义,因而常可省略。表示伴随情况时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用with的复合结构:with + 名词(代词)+ 现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语。例如:

He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raise.他举手着站在那儿。

The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。

A. being tied              B. having tied           C. to be tied             D. tied  

答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.

Ⅱ. 动词不定式和分词用作状语

动词不定式和分词同时还具有副词的词性特征,因此能在句子中充当状语。

与分词不同的是,动词不定式在句中做状语时,主要表示目的、结果、原因;而分词做状语主要表示时间、原因、条件、让步、结果、目的、伴随等。

一般判别二者之间的区别使用是根据不同的标志词来确定的,或者说用marker来确定它们。例如,动词不定式表示目的的有in order to, so as to。表示结果的有:so … as to, such … as to, enough to, too … to等。请看例句:

He shouted so as to be noticed.(目的)

She started early in order to avoid the rushing crowds.(目的)

Would you be so kind as to lend me your bike?(结果)

He is such a fool as to think that his idle chat can influence others.(结果)

The boy is old enough to look after himself.(结果)

His eyesight is too poor to read such small letter.(结果)

She wept to hear the news.(原因)

I rejoiced to hear that my son had been admitted into the famous university.(原因)

有些不定式短语可用来修饰整个句子,可以称作句子状语。这种状语不修饰谓语,而说明说话人的想法。如常见的有下列短语:So to speak,to tell the truth,to be honest, to make matters worse,to sum up (总而言之), to conclude (总而言之),  to be sure, to be brief, to begin with, strange to say , sad to say, needless to say, not to mention, to be frank with you, to make a long story short(长话短说), to be exact, not to speak of(更别说), to say nothing of(且不说) Eg:

To tell you the truth, I’ve never heard of the book.

To be honest, I don’t quite like the dish.

To begin with, it’s too cold. Besides, we’ve no money.

To be frank with you, I like you, and should be glad to give you any help I can.

He’s a nice person, to be sure.

To cut a long story short, he beat them one by one.

You’ve wasted eight hours’ time, to say nothing of the material.

分词的表现形式是通过悬垂结构的句意来判断的,但是要请注意,悬垂结构中的逻辑主语一定是后面主句中的主语,检验的办法就是用主句的主语很分词结构还原成一个状语从句。如:

① 时间

Looking up suddenly, Robert saw a rainbow in the sky.

Floating on water, a ship displaces an amount of water equal to its own weight.

Hearing the news that her son was rescued, she felt greatly relieved.

 ② 原因

Not knowing how to pronounce the word “plough”, the Frenchman looked up it in a dictionary.

Considering the importance of the experiment, they checked the result again and again.

Living in a remote village, we rarely have visitors coming.

 ③ 条件

This same thing, happening in the peacetime, would be a great disaster.

Unless meeting with unexpected difficulties at the office today, I shall be home early tonight.

 ④ 让步

Granting the achievements to be great, we have no reason to be conceited.

Walking and sleeping, he has the plan in his mind.

The chemical composition of water is H2O, whether being solid, liquid or vapor.

  ⑤ 结果

Their car was caught in the traffic jam, thus causing their delay.

We introduced a lot of advanced devices, thus saving much time and labor.

 ⑥ 目的

The people are working hard, striving to realize our country’s modernization.

We held a meeting, marking the anniversary of his death.

 ⑦ 方式(也称伴随)

They stood by the roadside, watching the parade.

She stood motionlessly vacantly, looking at the sea.

They sat together, studying carefully the design of the new project.

有些分词短语并不表示句子主语的动作,而是表示说话人的态度,作句子状语。如常见的有下列短语:Seeing that(由于,考虑到), considering that(由于,考虑到), taking everything into account/consideration(把一切考虑在内), judging from/by, given(假设,如果,考虑到), generally speaking, frankly speaking, strictly speaking, roughly speaking(大约地说),considering, talking of, supposing(假设), providing, provided, regarding, respecting, concerning. Eg:

Considering all the possibilities, I really believe that I’d prefer to make any change now.

Women, generally speaking, live longer than men.

Strictly speaking, I should not be here.

Judging from what you say, he ought to succeed.

His acting was remarkable, taking into account his youth and inexperience.

Considering the distance, he arrived very quickly.

Supposing she doesn’t come, what shall we do?

Given the general state of his health,it may take him a while to recover from the operation.

It seemed bad-tempered to send him away,given that he only wanted to take photographs.

注意:有些过去分词短语作状语,并不表示分词与句子主语是被动的关系,而是表状态,如:be dressed in, be faced with, be devoted to, be surrounded by, be separated from, be seated, be determined to等。Eg:

Dressed in white, he looks like a nurse.

Separated from other continents from millions of years, Australia has many plants and animals that can not be found anywhere else in the world.

Faced with danger, he stayed calm.

Ⅲ. 形容词也可置于句末作状语,并通常与前面的句子之间有逗号隔开,可表方式、伴随、结果、时间等,相当于副词的功能。如:

At last he got home, tired and hungry. 最后他终于到家了,又累又饿。

Holmes and Watson broke into the uncle’s bedroom and found the man lying on the floor, dead.福尔摩斯和华生强行进入这位叔叔的卧室,发现他躺在地上,死了。

Ⅳ. 副词作状语

1.表方式的副词,修饰不及物动词时通常置于动词之后;修饰及物动词时,通常置于宾语之后。如:The baby slept soundly.  She speaks English well.

但以-ly结尾的副词,修饰动词时,也可置于其它的位置,如:We warmly supported him. He carefully wrote a letter.

2. 表频率的副词always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never…通常置于be 动词之后,行为动词之前,或置于情态动词、助动词与行为动词之间。如:

I usually get up at seven. I am always busy.  I have never heard of it.

3. 表地点的副词here, there home, upstairs, downstairs, abroad, downtown(市中心)常置于所修饰的动词之后,而且前面不用介词。如:go abroad; come here

4. 表时间的副词today, tomorrow, yesterday, next day, last week, this afternoon, three day ago, several years before常置于句末且前面不用介词,但在加强语气时也可置于句首。如:

I went to see him yesterday.  Yesterday I saw a good film.

5. 同类副词同时出现在一个句子中时的顺序为:小单位副词+大单位副词。不同类副词同时出现在一个句子中的顺序为:地点副词+方式副词+时间副词。如:

I’ll meet you at three o’clock this afternoon. 我将于今天下午三点见你。

We arrived here safely yesterday. 昨天我们平安抵达此地。

The plane will arrive at the airport at 5 in the morning.飞机将于凌晨5点到达机场。

6. 放在be动词、助动词have, has, shall/will+副词+过去分词/现在分词/动词原形可构成进行时态、被动态、完成时态、将来时态。如:

He is still standing there.   Tom has just left.   We shall soon be there.

He is highly respected by his colleagues.

若被动态后无其它修饰语,此副词可置于过去分词之后。The work has been done carefully.

7. still(仍然),no longer(不再)位于be动词、助动词、情态动词之后,其它动词之前。如:

She is eighty years old, but she can still read without glasses.

They still don’t know the truth.

Your arguments are very interesting, but I still think you’re wrong.

Mr. Smith no longer works here.

8. 连接副词therefore, however, nevertheless, moreover, besides, likewise, otherwise, hence, thus, similarly, accordingly, furthermore等一般放在句中起连接作用。如:

We fished all day; however, we didn’t catch anything. 我们整天钓鱼,可是一条鱼也没有钓到。

9. 焦点副词even, just, merely, only, really, simply等是用来强调突出特定词语的意义,位置比较灵活,随着位置的不同,强调的重点也不相同。如:

Only Tom didn’t pass the exam.  只有汤姆没通过这次考试。

I simply didn’t know why he should behave like that. 我简直不知道他为何表现得那样坏。

10. 观点副词frankly, seriously, personally, luckily, obviously, roughly, generally, undoubtedly, evidently等常用于句首修饰整个句子,表示说话人对话语的看法。如:

Frankly, I’m not satisfied with your work at all. 坦白地说,我对你的工作一点也不满意。

Ⅴ. 状语从句(略)

 

 

 

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