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Unit 10 American literature  

2009-08-02 15:18:30|  分类: 高三英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 10  American literature

I. 单元教学目标

技能目标Skill Goals

▲Talk about American literature

▲Practise predicting and describing what a story might be about

▲Review all the verb tenses

▲Write a book review

II. 目标语言

功  能  句  式

Predict and describe what a novel with a certain theme might be about.

What would be an interesting story?  

What would be an exciting plot?

What characters would likely appear in it?

What would the characters be like?

Where and when would the story take place?

Would you like to read a short story or a novel?

Do you want to read for pleasure or for school?

      

 

 

 

 

1. 四会词汇

garbage, maid, prince, outcome, penny, grocery, bakery, weep, furnish, shabby, mailbox, bell, rag, rare, garment, worn, carpet, barbershop, haircut, anecdote, booklet, mutton, stove, baggage, pale, prayer, approve, anyhow, shave, comb, tortoise, flash, simplify

2. 认读词汇  

Dudley Randall, Della, Dillingham, backyard, cascade, Sofronie, curl, Coney Island,  William Sydney Porter, Broadway, tortoiseshell, jewel, reaction

3. 词组

attend to, take pride in, do up, let down, fix sth on / upon sb, at length

4.重点词汇

weep, furnish, shabby, anecdote, baggage, pale, approve, anyhow, shave, flash, simplify

语法

Review all the verb tenses.

 

 

 

 

重  点 句 子

1. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated.  P84

2. She hesitated for a minute and stood still while a tear or two fell on the worn red carpet.  P85

3. There was no other like it in any of the stores, and she had turned all of them inside out.  P85

4. It was worthy of the Watch.  P85

5. It’ll grow again—you won’t mind, will you?  P88

6. I’m me without my hair, aren’t I?   P88

III. 教材分析与教材重组

  1. 教材分析

       本单元以American literature为话题,通过诗歌欣赏,判断文学作品主题和阅读文学名著等学习方式,使学生对美国文学的特点以及发展历史和现状有一定的认识和了解,并能用已有的关于美国的历史、政治、文化等方面的知识判断和描述一部文学作品的主题、内容梗概和写作方法;能够运用所学的语言知识和技能听懂以对话形式对文学俱乐部举行的某些活动的评论,如成功和失败之处、优点和缺点所在等;并能用英语谈论美国文学作品,包括判断主题、分析写作特点、讨论作品主人公的个性、总结中心思想等,并对作品加以评论。

       1.1  WARMING UP 用一首小诗激发学生对美国文学进一步了解的兴趣,并使学生对美国黑人的诗歌有一个初步认识。它既呈现了本单元的中心话题—American literature,又以回答问题的形式帮助学生以这首小诗为线索去探究美国文学的特点,为以后关于“American literature”的进一步听、说、读、写的学习打下基础。

       1.2   LISTENING 包括两个部分。第一部分中要求学生在“听”之前谈论一下自己在英语角或英语俱乐部所参加过的活动以及他们的感受和经历;或者听说过的、更有趣的英语活动和学习途径,为下一步的“听”作充分的准备。第二部分是一篇对话,Ben, Ann and Lily正在为俱乐部组织一次英语活动。该部分设置的问题是:分析本次活动成功的原因和一次英语角活动不成功的原因,有一定难度。通过这项任务的完成,培养学生抓住听力材料中的要点信息、同时加以分析和总结的能力。

       1.3   SPEAKING 是一项对话练习,内容是根据所给出的四幅图片,运用已有的关于美国的历史知识去判断每幅图片有可能表达的一部文学作品的主题是什么。这项设计的特点是:①让学生使用有关谈论文学作品的特点、人物以及故事发生的时间、地点等方面的语言交流自己对某些文学作品看法和观点;②丰富学生谈论文学作品的语言,包括词汇和句型等;③激发学生对美国文学的兴趣,并加深对美国文学的了解,为今后喜爱阅读更多的美国文学作品的原著打下初步的基础。

       1.4   PRE-READING是READING的热身活动。设计了两个任务供学生实践和完成。第一项任务是:通过略读的方法快速获取信息并推断故事情节的进一步发展。第二项任务是:用浏览的方式在课文中快速找出特定的信息用以回答问题。

       1.5   READING 是一部短篇小说,节选自美国著名短篇小说家欧·亨利的著名短篇小说《麦琪的礼物》。文章讲述了一对穷困的年轻夫妇为互赠圣诞礼物而忍痛卖掉引以自豪的长发和怀表,却换来了不再起作用的发梳和表链的故事,反映了美国下层人民生活的艰难和辛酸,赞美了主人公善良的心地和相濡以沫的爱情。文章情节生动,构思巧妙,文笔简短而精练,结局出人意料。

       1.6   POST-READING 部分设计了三类任务,其中第一类是针对文章的理解,评价学生对文章理解的程度 (Exx.1—4) ;第二类是要求学生以根据课文做出的正误判断题为线索写一篇描述德拉的短文 (Ex.5) ;第三类任务要求学生根据已知的故事情节推断小说后半部分的故事情节将会怎样发展 (Ex.6) 。后两项任务具有很大的灵活性和挑战性。

       1.7   LANGUAGE STUDY 分为词汇和语法两项。词汇部分帮助学生学习用适合的形式和意义使用词汇和短语,旨在培养学生运用英语词汇和短语的能力。语法项目是复习动词的各种时态。

       1.8   INTEGRATING SKILLS 包括读和写两部分。该部分是READING的续篇。在这部分中,小说的故事情节有了戏剧性的发展和出乎意料、却又在情理之中的结局。该部分的教学重点是分析文章的写作特点和表现手法并启发学生细心体会作者是如何以文学作品为载体去表达一个深刻的思想内涵的。写作部分的任务有两项:一是根据所给出的四幅图片描写本篇小说的故事情节;二是写一篇这部小说的摘要并对此加以评论以提高学生的写作能力。

       2. 教材重组

       2.1   从话题内容上分析,WARMING UP 和SPEAKING 以及Workbook中的TALKING比较一致; 将这三部分整合在一起,设计成一节任务型“口语课” 从教材份量来说也比较适当。

       2.2   无论从话题内容上分析,还是从训练目的上分析,LISTENING与Workbook中的LISTENING都相一致;因此,可将两个LISTENING整合在一起,设计成一节 “听力课”。

       2.3   将PRE-READING, READING和POST-READING三个活动整合在一起设计成一节“阅读课(一)”。

       2.4   根据本单元的特点(INTEGRATING SKILLS 中的READING是READING的续篇),将 INTEGRATING SKILLS 中的READING和WRITING整合成“阅读课(二)”紧接第三课时。

       2.5   将 LANGUAGE STUDY 与Workbook中的PRACTISING部分整合在一起,组成一节“语法课”。

       2.6   将 Workbook 中INTEGRATING SKILLS 的READING(泛读)“以及WRITING整合成一节“泛读与写作课”。

       3. 课型设计与课时分配(经教材分析,根据学情,本单元可以用6课时教完。)

       1st  Period          Speaking

       2nd  Period       Listening

       3rd  Period    Reading

       4th  Period        Extensive reading

       5th  Period        Language study

       6th  Period        Extensive Reading && Writing

Ⅳ. 分课时教案

The First Period    Speaking

Teaching goals 教学目标

1. Target language目标语言

a. 重点词汇和短语

theme, American literature, native Americans, slavery, the Civil War, as a guide for, outcome

b. 交际用语

What would be an interesting story?

What would be an exciting plot?

What characters would appear in it?

What would the characters be like?

Where would the story take place?

When would the story take place?

Would you like to read a short story or a novel?

Do you want to read for pleasure or for school?

2. Ability goals能力目标

Enable the students to talk about the themes of American literature, tell what type of stories they like to read and discuss why some books written by American writers are popular but some are not so popular.

3. Learning ability goals 学能目标

Help the students learn how to predict the themes of novels according to given information.

Teaching important points教学重点

Let the Ss learn to describe and predict different themes of American literature and what type of stories they would like to read.

Teaching difficult points 教学难点

How to express their ideas about different themes of American literature in the proper way such as an exciting plot, characters, when and where the story taking place and so on.

Teaching methods教学方法

1. Talking method;

2. Pair work or group work to have a discussion.

Teaching aids教具准备

A computer and a projector.         

Teaching procedures & ways教学过程与方式

Step I Revision

T: Good morning/afternoon, boys and girls!

Ss: Good morning/afternoon, Sir/ Madam!

T: Do you like reading?

Ss: Yes. We all like reading!

T: I don’t think so. Whenever I see you, you are talking about sports, music, food, clothes, pictures, stars and so on, but seldom are you talking about reading.

Sa: You are partly right, Sir/Madam. We seldom talk about reading just because we have different interests in different kinds of literature works and different themes.

Sb: Also because we have to read so much for school everyday and have so little time to read what we like for pleasure.

T: Oh, I’m sorry for what I said just mow. That is to say, you did your homework very well yesterday?

Ss: Certainly!

T: And you have got as much knowledge about American literature as you can?

Ss: Yes!

T: Great! Let’s have a competition between boys and girls. Those who like to join in the competition stand in lines, boys stand on the left, girls right. Our competition will go on like this: Each of the group numbers will write out one work with its writer’s name on the blackboard, do that in turn in each of your groups as quickly as you can. You can write different works by the same writer, but can’t write the same work. OK? Another thing: If you both get the same number of the works, the group with more different writers will be the winner. We’ll finish it within three minutes. Are you ready? One, two, three, go!

A few minutes later, check the work together and congratulate on the winning group. Then hand out the prizes prepared for the winners to encourage them.

Possible result                            (B): black writer

Boy Group

The Adventure of Tom Sawyer

——Mark Twain

The Beast in the Jungle

——Henry James

Main Street

——Sinclair Lewis

Native Son

——Richard Wright (B)

The Scarlet Letter

——Nathaniel Hawthorne

The Old Man and the Sea

——Ernest Hemingway

The Call of the Wild

——Jack London

Martin Eden

——Jack London

Girl Group

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

——Mark Twain

The Cantos

——Ezra Pound

The Grape of Wrath

——John Steinbeck

Invisible Man

——Ralph Ellison (B)

A Farewell to Arms

——Ernest Hemingway

The Gift of the Magi

——O. Henry

The Last Leaf

——O. Henry

...

The boy group wins the competition with seven different works and writers.

Step II Warming up

Talk about some famous American writers and their famous works appearing on the screen.

T: You did a great and exciting job just now. Well, let’s look at some pictures. Do you know something about them? If you know, please tell us as much as you can.

Show some pictures about some famous American writers such as Mark Twain, Ernest Hemingway, O. Henry, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and so on. At the same time, ask the Ss to try to talk about the pictures in order that the Ss can draw as much information about American literature as possible.

Show the picture of Nathaniel Hawthorne and his famous work The Scarlet Letter on the screen.

T: Who’s he? And have you read the novel?

Sa: He is Nathaniel Hawthorne. I know a little about him. Hawthorne is a novelist and short story writer and The Scarlet Letter is one of his most successful works. But I haven’t read the novel.

T: Good. Do you know some other best-known works written by Hawthorne?

Sb: Let me try. The House of the Seven Gables, Twice Told Tales and The Artist of the Beautiful.

T: Very good! Let’s see something about him.

Show the brief introduction on the screen and ask someone to read it aloud.

  

Nathaniel Hawthorne

Born in Salem, Massachusetts. Novelist and short story writer, a central figure in the American Renaissance. Nathaniel Hawthorne’s best-known works include The Scarlet Letter (1850) and The House of the Seven Gables (1851).

T: We have learned something about Nathaniel Hawthorne. Now look at this! Have you read the story? And do you know something about its writer?

Show the pictures of Harriet Beecher Stowe and her famous work Uncle Tom’s cabin on the screen.

     

Sc: Yes! Many of us have read the story. It is an antislavery novel written in 1852 by Harriet Beecher Stowe. The story was about a faithful black slave was killed by a cruel white enslaver and made people know how cruel the slavery was. It aroused the people’s sympathies.

T: Great! Now, let’s learn something more about Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Show the brief introduction on the screen and ask someone to read it aloud.

Harriet Beecher Stowe

       Born in the USA. in 1811. Her book Uncle Tom’s cabin not only made her famous but also shook the world and was helpful in causing the American Civil War. There was time when every English-speaking person had read the novel that did so much to stop slavery. President Lincoln greeted her as the “little woman who wrote the book that made this Great War.”

T: Have you read these poems?

Show the poetry anthology on the screen.

Ss: No. Heard about it but haven’t read it. / Yes. The poems in the anthology are wonderful...

T: Yes. That is a wonderful poetry anthology written by a great poet Walt Whitman. In 1855 Whitman published a volume of 12 poems at his own expense, Leaves of Grass, which he had begun working on probably as early as 1847. It was criticized because of its innovation in verse form, that is, the use of free verse in long rhythmical lines with a natural, “organic” structure.

While introducing the writer and his poems, show the portrait of Walt Whitman and the book and the log cabin where the work was born on the screen.

 

T: Now let’s appreciate the verses from one of his poems.

Show the verses on the screen.

O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done; The ship has weather’d every rack, the prize we sought is won.

——O Captain! My Captain!

Walt Whitman

T: Can you taste the deep meaning?

Ss: Sorry ...

T: Here Walt Whitman compares America to the ship, Lincoln to the captain. The ship “has weather’d every rack”, while their great captain lay down forever.

Ss: ... (The Ss will feel very sorry when hearing this.)

T: Yes. That is what good literature works bring us. Look, You must have read this book.

Show the book The Adventure of Tom Sawyer on the screen.  

  

Ss: Yes! Almost everyone has read the book. That’s very interesting and exciting and meaningful!

T: Who wrote it?

Ss: Mark Twain!! 

Show the picture of Mark Twain.

T: Mark Twain is his pen name. Do you know his real name?

Ss: Samuel Langhorne Clemens.

T: That’s right. Can you count more of his works?

Sd: Certainly! Besides The Adventure of Tom Sawyer, he wrote many interesting and humorous stories such as Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, The Mysterious Stranger, Life on the Mississippi, The Gilded Age and son on.

Se: Along with essays, critical works, and more.

T: Very good! Here on the screen are some more information about Mark Twain. Please go through it by yourselves.

About Mark Twain:

       Mark Twain, pen name of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, was a great literary giant of America, who was considered “the true father of our national literature”.

       The typical theme in Clemens’ writing was the narration of a story by a young or native person. When he wrote about youth, the youth was usually wise beyond his years but remained an idealism which Clements compared with the insincerity and cruelty of the adult world.

T: Till now, we’ve learned about many famous writers of America and their works, but have you read this work?  Pointing to the poem on Page 82.

Ss: No, we haven’t.

T: Now please read it carefully twice or three times, then go though the questions given below and have a discussion in groups of four. A few minutes later, I’ll check your jobs.

If there is enough time or the students have enough knowledge about the American literature and writers, the teacher can have the Ss talk more about them.

A few minutes later.

T: Are you ready? 

Ss: Yes! 

T: Everyone knows that the text you’ve just read is a poem, yes?

Ss: Yes! That’s very clear.

T: Can you guess who wrote the poem? I mean, was it written by a white poet or a black one?

Sf: I think it was written by a black poet.

T: But why do you think so?

Sg: Because it’s talking about lowest working people all the way and gives them and their work high glory and shows the respect to their ancestors.

Sh: I think so. Although “the black” isn’t mentioned a single time in the poem, still I can feel it was written by a black poet through the sensibilities and the languages. It describes the hard work of their ancestors as well as their poor living conditions. Who once lived a miserable life like pigs? Slaves! Who once were forced to be slaves? Black people!

Si: Yes. And who made the black people, born free ones, slaves? The early white settlers in America! So I can judge it must be American literature, and couldn’t be written by any poet from another country. Also I can read out the black people’s aspiration for freedom and equality.

T: Good! Wonderful deducing! And what deep thought can we get from the poem?

Sj: I think the poem is about accusing of slavery and the unfairness of the society. It shows us a spirit of freedom and tells us that people are born to be equal and nobody is nobler or lower.

T: Very good answers, and you all have deep thinking about the purpose of the writer.

Sk: Just now Si said it must be American literature, I agree with it. From the history and the substance of the poem we can know this. America used to be a colony of England. Slavery existed in America for a long time. Slaves were treated cruelly as draught animals. As America had not a period of feudal, Americans didn’t believe in Kings and Queens. After the Independent War and the Civil War, America marched on to freedom. At that time, slavery had been abolished but the thinking of slavery and racial discrimination still rooted in the minds of Americans. The writer wanted to break the wall between people, call for equality and black people’s self-respect and confidence. So he wrote this poem.

T: Great! You’ve analyzed the history origin and made the answer reasonable. And then, who can tell us something about the writer, whose name was marked below the poem?

Sl: I know something about him. Dudley Randall was born in Washington, D.C. in 1914. He worked during the Depression in the foundry of the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan, and then as a carrier and clerk for the U.S. Post Office in Detroit. He served in the U.S. Army Signal Corps, and graduated from Wayne State University and the University of Michigan.

Sm: He was a librarian at several universities, and founded the Broadside Press in 1965 “so black people could speak to and for their people”.

T: Very good. And what about his idea to the black poets?

Sn: Randall told Negro Digest, “Precision and accuracy are necessary for both white and black writers ...‘A black aesthetic’ should not be an excuse for sloppy writing.” He urged African American writers to reject what was false in “white” poetry, but not to forsake universal concerns in favor of a racial agenda.

T: Wonderful and clear! Who can tell something about his achievements?

So: Let me try. His works include On Getting a Natural and A Litany of Friends; New and Selected Poems. He edited The Black Poets, an extensive anthology of poetry, from slave songs to the present.

T: Excellent jobs you’ve done! 

Show the pictures of Dudley Randall and one of his works.

   

T: When looking back the history and life in the United States, what special themes and what sort of stories would you expect for American literature? I want to know your ideas.

Sp: I want to report my idea. America used to be a colony of England and slavery existed for a long time. Freedom came true after the Independent War and the Civil War. There were a lot of stories about love and courage in wars. So the fights about American especially black people who fought for freedom and equal rights must be very exciting.

Sq: I’ve read the story Adventures of Huckleberry Finn written by Mark Twain, which is about a white boy and a black slave running away from their terrible places together to have their adventure travel. The story is very interesting and exciting.

Sr: I expect for themes about wars. The furious war can show us the strong force to the slavery and bring us courage and power. Certainly, this theme can make us feel excited and thrilling.

St: The themes about the common people’s life of America will be attractions, from which we can know more about the real life of people in lower class. This kind of themes is often realistic and moving with kind and hard-working characters in them. We can learn more from them and get edification in heart.

T: Good! And you have so much wonderful thought that I almost want to read all of the themes of the American literature works. How could I do and which one should I choose?

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