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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Unit 12 Reading: Education For All  

2009-08-02 15:32:00|  分类: 高三英语 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

?Confuxius (KongZi), styled Zhong Ni, is one of China’s greatest thinkers and educationists. His teachings have become known as Confucianism and they continue to influence today’s Chinese and Chinese communities all over the world.

?Confucius was the first to start a private school which accepted students from all classes of the country. He stimulated his students to think by posing questions.

?Confucius spent his whole life trying to restore peace and harmony in society by emphasizing moral virtues and values.

 学而不思则惘,思而不学则殆

 He who learns but does not think is lost;

 he who thinks but does not learn is in great danger.

 温故而知新,可以为师矣

 Exploring the old and deducing the new makes a teacher.

 学而时习之,不亦悦乎?

 To learn and at due times to repeat what one has learnt, is that not after all a pleasure?

 

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客 

 

Makarenko---马卡连柯

 

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 Hellen Keller

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

陶行之

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

Tao Xingzhi was born in She County of Anhui Province in 1891. He is a great Chinese educationalist. He devoted all his life to the cause of education until his death. He went to study in the US under an American educator, Dewey in 1914 and came back to China in 1917.

He founded the theory of “Life Education”, laying the spiritual foundation for the reform and development of the Chinese people’s education.

 When he passed away in 1946, Mrs. Song Qingling eulogized him as “the model of teachers for ever (万世师表)”, and Mr Guo Moruo praised him “Two thousand years ago, we had Confucius, and now two thousand years later, we have Mr Tao Xing zhi”

 

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客Reading: Education For All

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

Unit 12 Education - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

Fast reading

 What are the problems with Chinese education?

 A shortage of teachers; large class sizes;  teachers have mixed grade classes

 

Read through the whole text quickly, then choose the best heading for each paragraph.

__G__Education  for all children worldwide will be difficult to achieve

___F_Solving the problem of teaching quality in remote areas

__A__Compulsory education for all Chinese children

___D_Problems of number and location

____CEncouraging people in rural areas to accept education

___E_Meeting the cost

____BEducation for all----an international target

 

 用所给动词的适当形式填空:

In 1986, the Chinese government introduced a law ____(state) that by the year 2000, every Chinese child would have nine years of compulsory education.

It ____(report) 99% of school-age children in China attended primary school by 2004.

In china, as in other countries, the government realizes that the future welfare of its citizens _____(link) to education closely.

It has to _____(explain) how the child, the family and the community can benefit.

There has been a ____(short) of teaching staff in the remote areas of many ______(develop) countries.

 

____(solve) this, Australia uses “distance learning” methods, where the students have lessons by two-way radio and mail.

_____(provide) them with a full curriculum is difficult.

In these countries, where some people don’t even have fresh water or basic health care, ____(reach) the target of “education for All” will be a huge task, despite help from the international community.

短语:

1.To begin with

2.education of high quality

3. attach importance to education

4. make a commitment to do..

5. have a tendency to do ..

6. rely on ..depend on..

7.adopt distance learning methods

词:target / welfare/ calculate/ accomplish/ remote/rural/community/ available

 

True or False

1)      By the year 2000 every Chinese child had had nine years of compulsory education.

2)      In 2000, there were 113 million children not in school.   

3)      The UNESCO made a goal called “Education for All”   

4)      It is important to create a positive attitude in agriculture areas, because it is not easy to change traditional ideas there.  

5)      How people are distributed can not affect the education system.

6)      Children from countryside usually can continue their study. Boys and girls have equal chances of education.   

7)      To equip schools, some developing countries rely almost completely on aid from other countries and international organizations.  

8)      China doesn’t receive help from some organizations.  

9)      Distance learning is only used in Australia.  

10)   In the least developed nations of Africa, “Education for All ” will be a huge task.

Careful reading

1.       According to the text, ______ of school-age children attended primary school by _______ .

A. 99 % ; 2000    B. 86% ; 2000   C. 99% ; 2004   D. 86% ; 2004

2.       What suggests that many countries realize the importance of education?   

A. They realize that the future welfare of their citizens is closely linked to education

B. They attended the World Education Forum in 2000

C. At the World Education Forum in 2000, they made a commitment called “Education for all”

D. They are trying to get every child into school

3.       ______ prevents some people attaching importance to education.   

A. The importance of agriculture      B. Heavy work on the farm

C. Traditional ideas                   D. All the above

4.       What kind of classes can often be seen in western provinces in China?  

A. Mixed grade classes              B. Classes of large sizes

C. Classes of small sizes             D. Classes by two-way radio and mail

5.     What measures do many developing countries take to provide schools with necessary equipment?

A. They call on their citizens to donate it

B. They depend on aid from other countries and international organizations or programs

C. They borrow it from their neighbor countries

D. Developed provinces provide aid for less developed provinces

6.       How many countries are mentioned in the text to have adopted distance learning methods?  

A. 1      B. 2       C. 3      D. 4

7.       According to Paragraph F, which of the following is one of the education problems existing in America?  

A. The quality of teaching is not good nationwide

B. There are too many families now below poverty line

C. One third of the students live in the countryside

D. Violent crimes take place in schoolyards

8.       The text talks mainly about ______.  

A. “Education for all”----the international target

B. solving the problems of teaching quality in remote areas

C. encouraging people in rural areas to accept education

D. problems of the number of people in one area and location

9.       It’s difficult for some countries in Africa and Asia to achieve the goal of “Education for all”, because _______.   

A. the population is too large

B. they are facing many other problems, such as lack of fresh water and basic health care

C. the international aid is far from enough

D. the economy there is the least developed

10.   Which of the statements is true?  

A. People’s attitude towards education affects education system

B. The number of people in one area and people’s distribution can also cause education problems

C. Education system can be affected by economy

D. All the above

Language points:

Paragraph A

1.     In 1986, the Chinese government introduced a law stating that by the year 2000 every Chinese child would have nine years of compulsory education. 在1986年,中国政府提出了一项关于在2000年以前每个中国孩子将会接受九年义务教育的法律。

▲ compulsory adj.强迫的, 强制的; 义务的;必修的

compulsory measures强迫手段                    compulsory legislation强制性立法

compulsory subjects必修科目                     compulsory service system义务兵役制

Which subjects are compulsory in your school? 在你们学校里,哪些课程是必修的?

Education is compulsory for all children in Britain between the age of 5 and 16.

译:                                                      

2.     It is reported that 99% of the school-age children in China attended primary school by 2004. 据报道,在2004年以前,中国99%的学龄儿童能进入小学。

▲It is reported (said, thought, hoped, etc) that … 句型结构,通常表达“据报道(据说,人们认为,人们希望等)”,其中句首的it是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的从句内容。

                          . 我们期待孩子们能继承我们家族的传统。

Paragraph B

3.     In China, as in other countries, the government realizes that the future welfare of its citizens is closely linked to education. 如同在其他国家一样,中国政府意识到中国市民的将来福利与教育密切相连。

▲ as in other countries, 相当于as it is the case in other countries, it 指代的是后面提到的情形。

In India,       , you can enjoy ancient culture and attractive scenery.

在印度,正如在中国,你可以领略到古老的文化和迷人的风景。

▲ be closely linked to “与…紧密相关的”。由“link sth. to(with) sth.”而来,意为:“使和…联系起来”。 相当于“be related to”.

Ice and snow                  .冰与雪与加拿大人的生活紧密相关。

Violence is the activity that has been most frequently linked with the consequences of TV.

译:                          

4.     When the World Education Forum met in 2000, it calculated that here were 113 million children not in school. At the Forum, the member countries of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Culture Organization (UNESCO)made a commitment to provide “complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality for all children by 2015”.They called this goal “Education For All”. These countries are now trying to get every child into school, and they are experiencing similar difficulties to those that China faces. 在2000年召开的世界教育论坛会上,计算出有一亿一千三百万个孩子未进入学校。在论坛会上,联合教育成员国,科学和文化组织(UNESCO)做了一个承诺,目的是去提供“在2015年之前,为所有孩子提供完全免费的高质量的义务教育”。他们称这个目标为 “全民教育”。现在,这些国家正努力去争取让每一个孩子都入学,而且他们也正经历着类似于中国所面临的困难。

▲ commitment  承诺;责任;承担义务

The general has repeated his commitment to holding elections as soon as possible.

将军重申了尽快进行选举的承诺。

I've taken on                  .我承担的义务太多了。

忠诚,信奉,支持

The company’s success this year would not have been possible without the commitment and dedication of the staff. 译:                             

▲ 复习face

Ø face vt. 面向,面对;面临,正视

The teacher asked me to stand and          .(面对观众站着)

a window               (朝南的一个窗户

“What this generation must do is face its problems”(John F. Kennedy)

“这一代必须做的是正视它的问题”(约翰F.肯尼迪)

Ø be faced with 面临

The state is now faced with the immediate question of raising new taxes.

国家面临紧迫的问题,收新税。

I realized that Hamlet                                             

意识到Hamlet面临着完全不同的问题。

Ø face to face  面对面地

The burglar turned the corner and found himself                                .

那窃贼转过墙角,面对面碰上一个警察。

Ø in the face of  不顾;面对,在…前面

He succeeded                            .  尽管有巨大的困难,但他成功了。

Ø lose face 丢面子

Paragraph C

5.     To begin with, it is important to create a positive attitude. In areas where agriculture plays an important role, people do not attach importance to education, and parents are skeptical of anything that takes children away from their work on the farm. 首先,创造一个积极的态度是一个重要的开端。在农业为主体的地区,人们不重视教育,家长们对不让孩子们参加地里劳作的做法很有疑虑。

▲ to begin with   首先,第一, 起初(不定式作为固定短语作状语)

I’m not going. To begin with, I haven’t a ticket, and secondly I don’t like the play.

我不去。一来我没票,二来我不喜欢这出戏。

                      , but later he became quite rich. 他起初没钱,可是后来相当富有了。

To begin with, we must consider the faculties of the staff all-sidedly.

首先,我们必须全面地考虑全体员工的素质。

类似词组有:to start with; to tell the truth; to be honest; to be frank; to make things worse

▲ attach importance to

Do you attach any importance to what he said?    你认为他说的话重要吗?

关于attach 的其他用法请参看第五单元和第十单元

▲ sceptical/ skeptical adj.怀疑论的; 不可知论的;怀疑宗教教条的; 怀疑的

be sceptical of/ about 对……抱着怀疑的态度

We’re sceptical of the team’s chances of winning.我们对获胜的机会感到怀疑。

He                                    by the government.他对政府的通告表示怀疑。

6.     It has to be explained how the child, the family and the community can be benefit, but it is not easy to change traditional ideas. China and other countries found that even when children from the countryside do start school, they have a tendency to be absent and often drop out later. In some cultures parents are particularly unwilling to send their daughters to school because the custom is to educate boys rather than girls. 尽管关于孩子,家庭和社区怎样才能受益已经做出了解释,但是要改变传统的观念是不容易的。中国和其他国家发现,即使当来自乡下的孩子开始上学的时候,他们经常旷课,然后就有退学的倾向。尤其是在一些地区,由于认为教育是给男孩的而不是为女孩的风气,所以父母总是不情愿送女儿上学。

▲ tendency   u趋向, 倾向  v天分,素质

There is an increasing tendency towards the use of mobile phones by middle school students.

译:                                             

She showed musical tendencies from an early age.她从小就显示出在音乐上的天分。

Ø have a tendency to do sth.  做…的倾向

She                                              . 她很容易忘记事情。

tend vi u有……的习惯或倾向,易于 (tend to do sth.)

Janet                                             if you disagree with her.

你如果不顺着珍妮,她往往容易大发脾气。

v tend to/towards+名

The sort of music he listens to varies, but                             .

他所听的音乐形形色色,不过倾向于流行音乐。

▲ absent  adj. u 缺席的,不在的(from);

He is absent from Beijing.他不在北京。

He is absent in Beijing.他外出了,目前在北京。

He is often absent from classes.他经常缺课。

v 心不在焉的,漫不经心的,茫然的(置于名词前)

There was an absent expression on his face.他脸上带着茫然若失的表情。

in an absent way 茫然地

Ø absent-minded adj.心不在焉的

▲ drop out  u从(活动、竞赛中)退出

Peter dropped out before completing one circuit of the track.还没跑完一圈就退出了。

Since his defeat he                             .他失败后就不再从事政治活动了。

v中途退学、辍学

He dropped out of college after only 2 weeks.他在学院里只上了两周就退学了。

其它词组:drop behind     落后       drop by    顺便访问:停下做短暂访问

drop off    睡着;减少               drop in on sb./ drop in at a place  顺便走访

drop into   跌入,落下,不知不觉

⑴ If I have time , I am sure to              you.

⑵ With the meeting going on, most of them               sleep.

⑶ During the journey , Tom and Tim              the rest of the teammates.

▲be willing /unwilling to do (不)愿意。(不)乐意

They keep a list of people (who are) willing to work nights. 他们有一份愿意夜间工作的人的名单。

They are unwilling to invest any more money in the project. 他们不愿再为这个项目投资。

She was unable, or unwilling, to give me any further details.

她不能,或不愿意,向我提供进一步的细节。

▲ would rather

Ø would rather ..than 宁愿,宁可

Ø rather than       而不是

Ø other than        不同于,除了(except)

Ø or rather         更确切地说

⑴ I think I would have a cold drink              coffee.

⑵ I             have the red one          the green one.

⑶ These shoes are comfortable             pretty. 这双鞋不好看,但是舒服。

⑷ There's nobody here                 me.

⑸ You can't get there             by swimming. 你只能靠游泳游到那边去。

⑹ She works as a secretary ,            a typist.

Paragraph D

7.     China’s large population meant that the schools had to expand to take in many more students.中国人口众多,这意味着必须扩大学校的规模,以吸收更多的学生。

▲ mean在此句中意为:“意味着…”后面可以跟名词、动名词或从句。

Life to him meant action, rather than thought.对他来说,生活意味着行动,而不是思索。

I won’t wait if it means                   .我不会等待,如果这意味着耽搁一个多星期。

In some parts of London, missing a bus means                         .

在伦敦的一些地区,错过一辆巴士意味着得再等一个小时。

Ø mean后接不定式,意为“打算”

I’m sorry I hurt you. I didn’t mean to.

Ø词组:

Don’t laugh! I mean it (= I am serious).不要笑,我是当真的。

You’re meant to (= you are supposed to) pay before you go in.

I was never meant for the army (= did not have the qualities needed to become a soldier).

我根本就不是块当兵的料。

Philip and Kim were meant for each other (= are very suitable as partners). Philip 和Kim真是天生的一对。

‘Do you mind if I have a look?’ ‘By all means.’借我看一眼行吗?当然可以。

The load was lifted by means of a crane. 重物是用起重机吊起来的。

She is by no means an inexperienced teacher. 她绝不是一个毫无经验的老师。

By no means are these cases exceptional. 这些例子绝不是例外。

▲ expand扩大,增大,膨胀,增强,伸展(become greater in size, number or importance).

Our foreign trade has expanded greatly in recent years.我们的对外贸易近来有极大的发展。

His modest business eventually expanded into a supermarket empire.

他原先不大的生意后来扩展成了超级市场集团企业。

Water expands when it freezes.水结冰时体积膨胀。

                            . 加热,金属就会膨胀。

In ten years the city’s population expanded by 12%.十年之中,该城人口增加了百分之十二。

▲take in 本句中意为“接受,接纳。”它还可以表示以下等含义:

u理解,领会,明白

They listened to my lecture, but                       , I wonder?

他们听了我的讲座,但是我怀疑他们到底听懂了多少。

v包括,涉及

The article                                 .这篇文章包括了这个问题的所有方面。

w 欺骗,使上当

Don’t trust that fellow, he’ll               if he gets the chance.

不要相信那个家伙,他一有机会就回会骗你。

8.     How people are distributed can also affect the education system.人口的分布也可能对教育体系有影响。

▲ distribute vt  分布,分发,分配    

distribute sth to /among   把…分给…

He                                            .他正在向人群散发传单。

The firm distributed its profits among its workers.该公司将利润分给工人。

Our shops                                 .我们的商店遍布全城。

Ø distribution n.分配, 分发, 配给物, 销售, 法院对无遗嘱死亡者财产的分配, 分布状态, 区分

the distribution of wealth财富的分配    the distribution of profits利润的分配

the distribution of insects昆虫分类

9.     In China most citizens live in the eastern areas and this results in large class sizes.在中国,大多数公民住在东部地区,,其结果造成班级人数很多。

▲ result in: lead to      产生某种作用或结果(无被动语态)

result from: lie in      由于

As we all know, diligence results in success, while failure results from laziness.

? Firemen said the fire was under control, but they warned that the change in the weather might ___ _____ new fires.

A. result from     B. bring in     C. lead to      D. break out

10.  In north and central Australia the population is so spread out that children in some rural settlements can be as far as 1000 km away from the nearest school.在澳大利亚的北部和西部,人口分布很散,有的乡村定居点离最近的学校可能远达一千公里。

▲ spread out  展开,伸开,散开

The woods spread out as far as the eye could see.

Do you have to            all over the sofa?你就非得躺下,把整个大沙发全占了才行吗?

The captain told his men                 .队长叫手下散开。

▲ as far as

Ø as far as the eye can / could see 极目所尽

The bleak moorland stretched on all sides                            .

荒凉的旷野向四面伸展开去,一望无际。

                      , there was no cause for concern. 就我们所知,没什么可担心的。

As far as I can see, you’ve done nothing wrong. 依我看,你没有做错任何事。

She lived in Chicago, as far as I can remember. 据我所记得的,她过去住在Chicago。

as / so far as sb/ sth is concerned  就……而言

                        , you can do what you like.就我而言,你想干什么就干什么。

11.  To solve this, Australia uses “distance learning” methods, where the students have lessons by two-way radio and mail. 为了解决这个问题,澳大利亚采取了“远程教学”的方法, 学生利用双向无线电通讯和邮件来上课。

▲ to solve this是目的状语提前,表示强调;另外句中where引导的是非限定性定语从句,修饰说明methods;此类定语从句比较特别,因为其中的引导词并非表示地点的名词,类似的名词还有case, situation, condition等。

Can you think of a situation                                 ?

你能想出一个使用这个成语的情况吗?

Paragraph E

12.  The success of a country in bringing education to all also depends on the economy…To equip schools some of these governments rely almost completely on aid from other countries, international organizations such as the World Bank and non-governmental organizations such as Save the Children.一个国家全民教育的成功与否也取决于它的经济……为装备学校,一些政府几乎完全依赖其他国家的援助,国际组织如世界银行和象挽救孩子这样的非政府组织都在为这些国家提供帮助。

▲ depend on “依赖……,指望(rely on/ upon)

Ø depend on +n

The price                            . 价格取决于质量。

Ø depend on +n +for +n.

The flooded areas                                  . 洪水受灾地区依靠政府的救济。

Ø depend on sb to do 

You may depend on them to arrive early.他们早到是会靠得住的。

Ø That depends ./It all depends.  这很难说,要视情况而定。

---Shall we go climbing tomorrow?

---It all depends on the weather.

13.  And private citizens also donate money through the Hope Project.

▲ donate  vt. 捐赠;赠送

Many more warm-hearted people donated blood to the poor girl.

许多热心人为那可怜的女孩献血。

In his will, he volunteered to                           .

在他的遗嘱中, 他自愿把遗体捐献给医学。

Paragraph F

14.  One in three students in the United States lives in the countryside, and providing them with a full curriculum is difficult.三分之一的美国学生居住在乡下,给他们提供一个完整的课程是很困难的。

▲ curriculum  n.[C] 学校的全部课程

The student is very knowledgeable because he also studies things not in the curriculum.

这个学生知识很丰富,因为在学校课程以外他还学习别的东西。

15.  China has also adopted distance learning methods such as television lessons, and in 1999,the Ministry of Education introduced computerised teaching networks in central and western China.中国已采用远程教学方法,像电视机,并且在1999年,教育部采用计算机处理中部和西部的中国教育网络。

16.  In today’s world of computerised working and developing technology, continued education is often essential for people to meet the changing requirements of their profession. 在工作电脑化和科技不断发展的今天,为了满足人们职业的不断变化的需求,继续教育是非常必要的。(p.105)

▲ 此句中应注意几个非谓语动词computerized, continued , developing和changing,在句中作定语, 分别限定其后面的名词。过去分词表被动,现在分词表示正在进行。

▲ computerize “用计算机做某事,使计算机化”。

The accounts section has been completely computerized.会计科已完全计算机化了。

computerize  的后缀- ize或 –ise表示“使…,…化”。

类似结构的词有modernize(现代化), realize(意识到),apologize(道歉),popularize(使…受欢迎)等。

▲此句中continued为形容词,作定语。 意为:“继续不停的(going without stopping)”。

We have accumulated rich experience for the continued education of government employees and professionals.我们在组织和实施公务员和专业技术人员继续教育方面积累了相当丰富的经验。

▲ meet/satisfy/ fulfill the requirements “满足…的需求”。

Our latest model should meet your requirements exactly.我们的最新型号包你满意。

In applying for the position of sales manager I offer my qualifications, which believe will meet your exacting requirements.为了申请销售经理的职位,附上我的合格证书,我认为会符合你们严格的要求的。

Your essay should cover all the information provided and                           :

你的文章应该包含提供的所有信息,并满足以下要求。

▲ profession n.职业,工作(多指具有某种专业知识的工作)

I think Jack should take up some other profession.我认为杰克应该从事其他什么职业。

She intends to make teaching her profession.她打算从事教学这一职业。

Ø by profession 以…为职业,做…工作

I’m a carpenter by profession.我的职业是木匠。

professional adj.职业(性)的, 业务的,从事于专门职业的,以(运动等)为专业的

professional knowledge专业知识

professional men专家(尤指医生、律师等)

Language study

17.  However, balancing the workload of a demanding job alongside a course of study can be difficult… (p.105)然而想要平衡费心费力的工作负担和课程学习的负担是很难的。

▲ alongside prep.在…旁边,与…一起

The dog ran alongside me all the way.那狗一路上跟在我旁边跑。

We brought our boat alongside their boat. 我们把船靠到他们的船旁边。

Ø除……之外

We have videos, recordings and other learning aids                               .

除了课本之外,我们还有电视、录音和其他辅助教学设施。

Øalongside of沿着,并排,一起

The cars were parked alongside of each other.那些车并排停放。

18.  Parents are not prepared to send girls to school because they do not believe it will be of any benefit. 父母亲不愿意把女儿送去上学,因为他们认为这不会带来任何好处。(p.106)

▲ 此句中be prepared to 意为“能够并愿意做某事(be able and willing to do sth)”。

I am prepared to lend you the money if you promise to pay it back.我愿意把钱借给你,你得答应还给我。

I                               and listen to these outrageous insults.

我可不愿意在这儿受这种奇耻大辱。

▲ be of benefit to

Ø be of benefit to “对…有好处”。benefit前可用“real, great, much, immense”等形容词修饰。

Doing morning exercises will                           . 做早操对你的健康有利。

Ø "(be)+of+名词"结构中的名词是抽象名词时,相当于其中名词所对应的形容词的意思,说明被修饰词具有某种特征或属性。

常用的名词有:use/importance/help/value/interest/quality/service/benefit/necessity等。

I don't want to hear what you are saying. It is            to me. (of no interest=not interesting)

我不想听你说,我对此不感兴趣。

Coal                   to the development of industry. (of great importance=very important)

煤对工业发展是相当重要的。

New Zealand wine is of high quality and is sold all over the world.

新西兰的酒质量很好,并且被销往世界各地。

ö You'll find this map of great ________in helping you to get round London.

A. price      B. cost      C. value     D. usefulness

19.  However, when the facts are examined, it is clear that educating girls leads to improved health and levels of income. 然而,仔细观察事实可以发现,显然让女孩接受教育,最终可以改善健康状况和提高收入水平。P.106

▲ 此句中应注意句型It is clear that …,it 是形式主语,真正的主语是that引导的从句。从句的主语是动名词短语educating girls, improved health and levels of income作lead to 的宾语。

类似的句型有:It is clear (obvious, evident, true, possible, certain...) that.....

常译为“清楚(显然,明显,真的,可能,肯定……)”,是主语从句最常见的一种结构。

It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree. = That he’s round and tall like a tree is very clear.

                                                 .大家都清楚那个孩子受过虐待。

▲ lead to sth “导致某种结果( have sth as its results)”。 lead to中的to为介词。

后跟名词或动名词, 2003年上海高考题中,thief与catch 之间是被动关系, 故用了动名词的复合结构的被动形式。

ö The discovery of new evidence led to _______.

A. the thief having caught        B. catch the thief  

C. the thief being caught         D. the thief to be caught

▲ improved health 其中的“improved” 是过去分词作定语,限定health。

School health programs lead to increased student wellness and            .

学校的健康活动改善了学生的身体状况,并且也提高了学生的学习能力。

Integrating skillsHow We Learn

Questions:

1. How many different kinds of learning styles are there? And what are they?

There are three basic learning styles: learning through seeing, learning through listening and learning through doing.

2. Why is it necessary for the student to know his or her own learning style?

If a student knows his own learning style, there is a lot he can do personally to improve his learning skills and find the most appropriate ways to approach his learning tasks. As a result, he will be able to manage his own learning and study more effectively.

3. Give a definition for each learning style.

Learning through seeing means: When learning something new, the learner prefers to read information.

Learning through listening means: If a learner finds it easiest to learn a new concept by hearing a teacher explain it, he is a learner who learns through listening.

Learning through doing means: Being active in exploring the environment and finding out about things by moving and touching。

Language points:

20.  In other aspects you have a lot in common. 而在别的方面。你们却有许多相同的地方。

▲ aspect  外貌;方面;(面对某一方向的)正面

a man with a serious aspect    外貌严肃之人

consider other aspects of the matter考虑事情的其它方面

study every aspect of a subject  研究一个问题的每一个方面

21.  Learning style theory suggests that different people have different ways of obtaining information and use various methods to demonstrate their intelligence and ability.学习方式的理论指出,不同的人有不同的获取信息的方法,并用不同的方法来表现他们的智力和能力。

▲ obtain vt 取得;获得;借到;

There are people who gamble or cheat to obtain money. Those people try to get money by dishonest means.有一些通过欺骗和赌博获得钱的人,他们总想通过不诚实的手段来得到钱。

I                 with difficulty.我好不容易为你弄到了这张唱片。

辨析:get, obtain, acquire, gain, win, earn这组动词的一般含义是“得到”。(供同学们参考)

Ø obtain较正式用词,着重通过巨大努力、要求而得到所需或盼望已久的东西。

The journalist immediately set out to obtain these important facts.

那位新闻记者立即着手获取这些重要的资料。

Ordinary people would then be able to use them to obtain valuable information.

那时平常的人便能运用它们去获取宝贵的信息。

▲ get普通用词,使用广泛,可指以任何方式得到某物,也不一定要经过努力。

I sat in the front of the bus to get a good view of the countryside.

我坐在公共汽车的前部,以得到有利于观赏农村风光的机会。

▲ acquire强调通过不断的、持续的努力而获得某物,也指日积月累地渐渐地获得。书面语用词。

After having been instructed to drive out of town, I began to acquire confidence.

接到把车开出城的指令后,我的信心增长了。

▲ gain侧重指经过努力或有意识行动而取得某种成就或获得某种利益或好处。

During that time, she so gained my aunt's confidence that she was put in charge of the domestic staff.在这期间,她得到了我姑姑如此的信任,结果被委任为家仆的负责人。

A penny saved is a penny gained.省一文是一文。(谚语)

▲ win主要指通过努力、斗争、比赛等而获得胜利。

It seemed certain that this would win the prize.这一块会得奖,这似乎是肯定的了。

This invariably wins them the love and respect of others.

这种行为常常为他们赢得别人的爱戴和尊敬。

▲ earn侧重指依靠自己的劳动或因付出代价与有功而获得。

His achievements earned him respect and admiration.他的成就为他赢得别人的尊敬和赞美。

Some of them have come home for a few days' hard-earned leave.

他们中的有些人已经回国,度过那得之不易的几天假日。

▲ demonstrate

Ø demonstrate在本句中指“表明,表示(show)”.

His sudden departure demonstrates that he is unreliable.他的突然离去表明他的不可靠。

Ø demonstrate 在高二教材中出现时,表示“示威集会或游行 ”。

可构成词组,demonstrate (against/in favor of sb /sth) 示威游行反对或赞成某人或某事。它的名词形式有demonstrator游行者,示威者,demonstration 示威或游行。

Thousands demonstrated against the price increases.数以千计的人举行示威,抗议物价上涨。

The police arrested more than 100 demonstrators.警察逮捕了100多名示威游行者。

22.  Although experts have many ideas and categories of learning, it is evident that people learn in three basic styles: learning through seeing, learning through listening and learning through doing. 尽管专家对学习有很多的想法和分类,但显然,人们通过三种基本的方式来学习:视觉型学习,听觉型学习和动觉型学习。

▲ It is evident that …主语从句。相当于 “It is clear/obvious that …”.

▲ evident 形容词,表示“明显的,清楚的(obvious, clear)”。

He looked at his children with evident pride.他以明显的得意态度望着他的孩子。

The applause made it evident the play was a hit.掌声表明这个戏剧很成功。

Ø evidence  n.明显, 显著, 明白, 迹象, 根据, [物]证据, 证物

There is no evidence that he is guilty.没有证据证明他有罪。

for lack of evidence因为缺少证据

on evidence依据证据

23.  They select a variety of activities to suit their students’ different styles.他们选用许多不同的活动来适应学生们不同的学习方式。

▲ choose, select, pick out

Ø choose通常指在所提供的对象中,凭个人的判断力进行选择

Ø select 指有目的地仔细认真地选择,有“精选”的含义。

Ø pick out 比较通俗, 指按个人的喜好或希望进行挑选,多用于有形的东西(人或物)

⑴ You can            your new bicycle.

⑵ He looked through the suits and           the cheapest one for me .

⑶            the best answers.

▲ fit, suit, match

match 和……相配;和……相称;使较量,一般指两样东西互相匹配或两人的能力势均力敌,互为对手

fit 指大小,尺寸合体。

suit 指颜色,花样或款式适合

⑴ This hat _       your jacket perfectly.

⑵ The color of the cloth _     _ a woman at my wife’s age.

⑶ These shoes don’t _     _ me. Have you got a large size?

⑷ This climate doesn’t         her.

Ø be suited to /for    适合于

Ø suitable 适合的; 适宜的; 恰当的

Ø be suitable for/to “适合,合适”。在后面的writing中有一个句子。

What aspects of your study habits                                        and why?

你的学习习惯的哪些方面是不适合你的学习风格的,为什么。

When we design buildings, we should keep in mind that there should be apartments that ________________  disabled persons. 当我们设计大楼的时候,我们要记住:应该设计一些适合残疾人居住的公寓。

A suitable place for a picnic                    适合野餐的地方

clothes suitable for cold weather                 适合寒冷天气穿的衣服

24.   Students who have this learning style take a hands-on approach to education and enjoy doing experiments or surveys.具有这种学习方式的学生通过动手实践的方式来接受教育,他们喜欢做实验,作调查

▲ approach vt./n. 接近,靠近,建议,要求,(待人接物或思考问题的)方法,方式,态度

We heard the sound of an approaching car / a car approaching。我们听见一辆车驶近的声音。

She                          for a loan.她向银行要求贷款。

The school has decided to adopt a different approach to discipline.

学校决定采用另一种方式解决纪律问题。

25.  However, restrictions of time, space and resources often make it impossible to provide the best exercise for all learners.然而由于时间、空间和资源上的限制常常使教师无法给所有的学生提供最好的训练。

▲ restriction n.限制,约束

The park is open to the public without restriction.该公园无任何限制对公众开放。

The government placed restrictions on the number of foreign cars that could be imported.

政府限制进口外国轿车。

Ø restrict vt.限制,限定

                                      .在英国,酒的销量是受限制的。

Ø restrict…to…把…限制在…内

We                                             .我们俱乐部的会员仅限于中学生。

He was restricted to (smoking) three cigarettes a day.他受到限制,每天只能抽三根烟。

26.  advocate  vt.拥护, 支持; 提倡; 主张; 建议; 辩护

▲ advocate +n./doing

I advocate a policy of gradual reform.我拥护逐步改革的政策。

Do you advocate banning cars in the city center? 你支持禁止汽车在市中心通行这一主张吗?

27.  Organise a study schedule to include frequent breaks.

▲ schedule n. 计划表,日程安排表

a schedule of postal charges邮资一览表          a sailing schedule航运时刻表  

a train schedule火车行车时刻表                a production schedule生产进度[计划]表

What's your schedule for tomorrow? 你明天的日程安排如何?

according to schedule按时间表; 按照原定进度       on schedule按时间表, 准时

ahead of schedule提前      

The task will be finished                    if nothing prevents.

如果没有阻力的话,这个任务就会提前完成。

behind schedule落后于计划或进度; 迟于预定时间

make a study schedule/plan 制定学习计划

    

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