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英语阅读理解题的解题思路  

2009-09-19 00:04:59|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、            解的十个特征:

1、体现中心思想(包括段落中心)的是解

2、照抄原文的不是解,同义替换的是解

3、  含义不肯定的是解,如:can  could  may  usually  might  most  more or less  relatively  be likely to

含义绝对的不是解: must   always  never  the most  all  any  none  entirely

含义相反的是解

4、具体的不是解,概括性的、抽象的是解

5、带有some的是解:someone  somebody  sometime  something  certain

6、简单的不是解,复杂的是解,字面意思不是解,含义深刻的是解

7、带虚词的解:

another  other  more  either  both  also  beside  additional  extra  different  same  particular  nearly  not enough

8、“变化”是解:

change  delay  improve  postpone  increase

9、“重要的、基础的”是解:important  necessity  essential basis 

be based on

10、  二选一:反义项有解;形似项有解;近义项有解

 

二、  阅读题的四种题型及其命题思路

1.        主旨题-中心思想

①    Main idea -what is the main idea / point of this passage?

 

 

②    Main topic -what is the main topic / subject / title?

③    Purpose -what is the author’s main purpose in the passage?

对策:答案多在文章的首句或末句;解:多为概括性的选项

2.        细节性问题

①    Accroding-考查对文章内容的掌握,如:时间、地点、事件等细节问题。

对策:利用题目中的关键词找文章中的对应词,在对应词的周围寻找答案。

②    Number-考查对文章中数字的掌握,

1)运算型:通过简单的四则运算求解。

对策:原始数据不是解。

2)多选一型:文中出现多个时间或数字,对应不同的事物,考其中的一个。

对策:对号入座。

3)范围型,

4)世纪型

③    Except题型-即三缺一型,要求选出一个不符合文章内容的选项。

④    Which题型

对策:这两种主要考并列句、列举句

3.        推断型问题

命题包括以下动词:infer, imply, suggest, conclude, assume.

对策:

1)根据文中的关键词、短语、结构进行推断;

2)通过阅读某段或几段内容

3)注意:要根据文中内容进行推断,不能凭空猜测。

4.        词汇型问题

①    考查熟词偏义或在特定场合具体的词义

对策:常见含义不是解

②    生词的含义推断

对策:根据上下文判断其合理的词义才是唯一的出路。

 

总结:常见的命题思路:

l        文章的中心、段落的中心

l        指代关系

 

make gains              make a profit

l        因果关系

①    正因果关系

文中A导致B,问题:有了B这一结果,为什么,答案是A

②    反因果关系

文中A具有X特性,B与A不同,问,B有何特点,答案是非X

特性。

或A       B, 考非A       非B

 

三、  文章的十大考点

1、列举处常考          细节题,特别是Which型和Except型;

2、转折处和对比处常考

However, but, yet, in fact, although, 转折:unlike, until, however, but等。

3、例子常考          推断题和细节题

as, such as, for example, for instance, i.e. etc.

4、数字和年代常考

文中的数字、年代和日期常常是命题的重点。

5、最高级和绝对性词汇常考         答案具有唯一性

must, all, only, anyone, always, never,或most, first.

6、专有名词常考

人名、地名等专有名词

7、细节处常考         细节题

同位语,插入语,定语,长句的后半句,从句,副词,介词,不定式。

8、因果句常考         推断题

因果连词:because, since, for, as, therefore, so, consequently etc

因果动词:cause, result in,originate from, etc

因果名词:base, basis, result, consequence. etc

9、段落中心句常考         主题题和细节题

段首句和文尾句往往是作者表达中心思想和进行总结综述之处,

10、  特殊标点常考          细节题

破折号、括号、冒号表示解释,引号表示引用

 

 

 

 

列举处,因果关系

示例1、

最高级举处

转折处

Space is a dangerous place, not only because of meteors(流星)but also because of rays from sun and other stars. The atmosphere again acts as our protective blanket on earth. Light gets through, and this is essential for plants to make the food which we eat. Heat, too, makes our environments tolerable and some ultraviolet rays penetrate the atmosphere. Cosmic rays of various kinds come through the air from outer space, but enormous quantities of radiation from the sun are screened off. As soon as men leave the atmosphere they are exposed to this radiation but their spacesuits or the walls of their spacecraft, if they are inside, do prevent a lot of radiation damage.

Radiation is the greatest known danger to explorers in space. The trouble is that it is extremely difficult to be sure about radiation damage        a person may feel perfectly well, but not cells of his sex organs may be damaged, and this will not be discovered until the birth of (deformed) children or even grandchildren.

长句后半句

 

Drugs might help to decrease the damage done by radiation, but not really effective ones have been found so far. At present, radiation seems to be the greatest physical hazard to space travelers but it is impossible to say just how serious the hazard will turn out to be in the future.

 

转折,长句后半句

 

 

 

 

 

 

1、According to the passage, without atmosphere            

A) spaceships can never be shot into space

B) sunlight can’t reach the earth      (具体不是解)

C) plants can produce varied food

D) our environment would be intolerable(概括是解,含义相反的是解)

2、When men spend long period in space they will protect themselves by      

A) taking special drugs

B) wearing special suits(替换spacesuits是解)

C) using a protective blanket

D) no solution has been found yet

3、The greatest danger to men in space is         

A) meteors             B) weightlessness

C) radiation            D) magnetic force

4、Which of the following statement is true according to the passage?

A) the grandchildren of astronauts are deformed

B) the children of astronauts have damaged sex organs

C) radiation damage may show only in later generations(may是解)

D) radiation does not seem to be very harmful

5、Radiation is dangerous to men,        

A) but we don’t know exactly how dangerous it is

B) but only in space          (替换是解)

C) so we should build up our health

D) and we can do nothing about it at the present time

 

 

 

转折,长句后半句

示例2、

举例,长句

Every we are all influenced by the mass media. Although some critics of the media claim that these means of communication are used mainly to control our thinking and get us to buy products that we don’t need, the media also contribute to keeping people informed. In other words, while dangers do exist, the benefits of the media far outweigh the disadvantages. Most of the messages brought to viewers, listeners, and readers are designed either to inform or to entertain, and neither of these goals can be considered dangerous or harmful.

因果,列举,长句后半句

If consumers of the media could be taught at an early age to examine messages critically, i.e. to think carefully about what is being communicated, they would be able to take advantage of the information and enjoy the entertainment without being hurt by it. The key to critical thinking is recognizing the purposes of the news or scriptwriters, the advertisers, and so on. Are both sides of an issue being presented?  Is the amount of violence and killing shown necessary to the point of a story? Have enough facts about a product being advertised been presented?

Besides, in a country with a democratic form of government, the people can be kept informed by the mass media. To be able to express their views and vote intelligently, citizens need the opportunity to hear news, opinions, and public affairs programming. Information about current events is presented in -depth on publicly funded TV channels and radio stations as well as in newspapers. In addition, the public broadcasting media can help viewers and listeners to complete or further their education.

The media also give people the information they need in their daily lives and the media can be a valuable means of educating the public. Even though the media can be misused, most of their effects are positive.

1.         The main point the writer tries to make in this text is that        

A.      Advertising is harmful when it presents incorrect information.

B.       The positive effects of the mass media outweigh the negative ones.(概括是解)

C.      People should learn to take advantage of the media’s benefits.

D.     TV is more useful as a means of entertainment than as a means of providing information.

2.         What should consumers of the mass media be taught at an early age?

A.      To bring their imagination into full play when watching programs of low quality.

B.      To buy products advertised so that the demand increases.

C.      To turn off the TV set when hurt by bad programs.

D.     To think carefully about the messages brought to them.(替换是解)

3.         We can learn from paragraph 3 that citizens will be in a better position to express their views and make their choices if they are          

A.      Highly educated through TV and radio.

B.      Well protected by the government

C.      Highly paid by the employers

D.     Well informed by the media(概括是解)

4.         The underlined phrase “in -depth” in paragraph 3 could be best replaced by       

A.     Thoroughly(句义,词形)

B.      Partly

C.      Relatively

Simply

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