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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

日志

 
 

英文109句型精简版   

2009-09-26 22:07:51|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

 英文109句型精简版

1.

直接问句:        疑问词 + 助V + S ...?      ß问句动词要移到主词前

间接问句:S + V +  疑问词 + S + (助V) + V...    ß「间接问句」不是问句

* 他什么时候要走?                  我不知道他什么时候要走。

  When will he go?                    I don’t know when he will go.

2.

直接问句:        助V + S + ...?            ß也就是要用Yes或No回答的问句

间接问句:S + V +

whether

  + S + (助V) + V...

if

*你能不能来呢?                 你能不能来没关系。

 Can you come (or not)?            It makes no difference whether you can come (or not).

3.

 Do + S + V + [ 疑问字 + S + V ] ?         ß询问重点为”Do + S + V”

 疑问字+ do + S + V + [ 疑问字 + S + V] ?  ß询问重点为” 疑问字”

* A: Did you tell me who she was?    B: Yes, I did.

  A: 你有没有告诉过我她是谁?   B: 有啊,我告诉过你了。

  * A: Who did you tell me she was?    B: She is my sister.

A: 你告诉过我她是谁来着?     B:她是我妹妹。

4.

 你认为...如何?   ...如何?    ...好不好?      (建议去做某事)

 How about + O ?                    

 What about + O ?

 What do you say to + O ?             O 要用名词或Ving.

 What do you think of + O ?

 Let’s + V , shall we?

   * 去散散步好不好?

     How about (taking) a walk? = What about (taking) a walk?

   = What do you say to (taking) a walk? = What do you think of (taking) a walk?

   = Let’s take a walk , shall we?

5.

 一...就...;如果...就...

  [ 命令句 ] and [ S + V].     

 = If [ S + V ] ,  [ S + V].

  * 一动你就没命。

    Stir and you will be a dead man.  =  If you stir , you will be a dead man.

6.

 ...否则...;如果不...就...

  [ 命令句 ] or [ S + V].     

 = If [ S ... not + V ] ,  [ S + V].

 = Unless [ S + V ] ,  [ S + V].

  * 穿上外衣,否则你会着凉的。

 Put on a coat, or you’ll take cold.

   = If you don’t put on a coat, you’ll catch cold.

   = Unless you put on a coat, you’ll get a cold.

7.

 多么...啊! (感叹句)

 How +

 形

   + ( a + n.)

 

 副

   ( S + V ).        ß感叹句不是问句

 What + (a) + (形) + n.

  * 多么美的夜色啊!                      * 这些男孩好丑啊!

How beautiful a night (it is)!                 How ugly the boys are!

= What a beautiful night (this is)!             = What ugly boys (they are)!

8.

 与现在事实相反的假设

 If  S +  

 were

  ... ,  S +

 would, could

   + V

 过去式V

 might, should

  * 要是我现在有翅膀,我要飞到美国。

If I had wings, I would fly to you.

9.

 与过去事实相反的假设

 If  S + had + pp ... ,  S +

 would, could

  + have + pp.

 might, should

  * 要是那时这鞋子我合穿的话,我就买了。

If these shoes had fitted me, I would have bought them.

10.

 与未来事实相反的假设

 If  S + were to + V ... ,  S +

 would, could

  + V.

 might, should

  * 即使明天太阳从西边升上来,我也不会做这样的事。

Even if the sun were to rise in the west tomorrow, I would not do such a thing.

11.

 未来表「万一」

 If  S + should + V ... ,  S +

 would, should ...

  + V.

 will, shall ...

  *万一这次失败了,我会再试一次。

If I should fail this time, I will(would) try again.

12.

 不确定的未来

 If  S + V现在式 ... ,  S +

 shall, will

  + V

 can , may

  *如果明天天气好,我们就去野餐。

If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.

13.

 不能实现的愿望

               +  S  + 过去式V          ß现在不可能的希望

 I wish         +  S  + had + pp           ß过去已不可能的希望

 Would that                should

 If only         +  S  +   would   + V     ß未来不可能的希望

                          could

* 我要是一只鸟该多好。

  I wish I were a bird.

  我真希望你那时告诉我真相就好了。

  If only you had told me the truth.

  但愿明天我能跟你一起去就好了。

  Would that I could go with you tomorrow.

* I hope you can help me.   我希望你能帮我。      ç可能实现

  I wish you could help me.  要是你能帮我就好了。  ç不可能实现

14.

 「祝福.....」的用法

 I wish + [ S + may + V ]

 May + S + V

 I wish + 人 + 事物

 (I wish) + 事物 + to + 人

  * 祝你成功。

   I wish you may succeed. = May you succeed. = I wish you success. = (I wish) success to you.

15.

 假设法if的省略

          were            Were

 If  S +   had     + ...  = Had      + S + ...

          should           Should

   * 我们不会失败的,要是失败,后果将如何呢?

     Were we to fail, what would happen? (= If we were to fail, ...)

     要不是我早知道她的名字,当时我就糗了。

     Had I not known her name, I would have been embarrassed. (If I had not known ...)

     万一下雨,我们就不去了。

     Should it rain, we would not go. (If it should rain, ...)

16.

 要不是...,...

 But for + O

 Without + O             ,  S + V假设法.

 If  S + not + V假设法

   * 要不是有太阳,我们根本就无法生存。

    But for the sun, we couldn’t live at all.

    = Without the sun, we couldn’t live at all.

= If it were not for the sun, we couldn’t live at all.

= Were it not for the sun, we couldn’t live at all.

17.

 该是...的时候了。

 It 

 is

 (high) time + [ S +

过去式V

 ]

was

should + V

   * 该是我们上床睡觉的时候了。           ß事实上还没睡

     It is (high) time we went to bed.

    = It is time we should go to bed.  = It is time for us to go to bed.

18.

 ...好像是...(其实不是)

 S + V

as if

S + V假设法

as though

   * 你看起来好像死了。

     You look as if you were dead.

19.

                            n.

命令建议要求坚持 的   adj.  +  that [ S + (should) + 原形V]

                            v.

   * 她父亲坚持她要跟那人结婚。

     Her father insisted that she (should) marry that man.

   *此类V.如:suggest, order, demand, command, insist, propose, ...

   *其实只要有「命令」、「建议」、「要求」、「坚持」意味的字,不论是名词、动词、形容词,其所接子句中的动词都该用原形、或 ”should + 原形V”。

    It is necessary that he take the exam.      他必须参加考试不可。

20.

 cannot ….. too…  越…越好;再…也不为过

   * 交友要越小心越好。    We cannot be too careful in choosing friends.

= You can never be over careful in choosing friends.

= One can hardly be careful enough in choosing friends.

21.

 all                        all

 both    …… not … =  not   both ……      不都…(部分否定)

 every                     every

   * 人不都诚实。                   比较:* 人都不诚实。

     All men are not honest.                     No man is honest.

= Not all men are honest.                  = All men are dishonest.

22.

              that ….not + V

 否定字 +…   but …..+ V         没有…不…

              without + O.

   * 没有人不爱自己的孩子。

There is no one but loves his own child.

= There is no one that does not love his own child.

= There is no one without loving his own child.   = Everyone loves his own child.

23.

        to + V

 not +   Ving         不   (不定词、分词、动名词的否定都是在前面加not)

        pp.            

   * 他试着不再想她。                 * 没办法帮他忙,我就离开了。

 He tried not to think of her.             Not being able to help him, I just left.

24.

 No +

n.

     禁止…;反对…;不准…

Ving

* 非公莫入。                           *禁止停车。           

No admittance except on business.     No parking.

25.

 There is no + Ving

 不可能…;没有人能…

= It is impossible to + V

* 简直不知道会发生什么事。

 There is no telling what may happen.

= There is no way of telling what may happen.

= It is impossible to tell what may happen.  = No one can tell what may happen.

26.

 not only A but (also) B

不但A而且B     ßB才是重点,所以动词与B一致

= B as well as A

  * 不但怪你,也怪你的朋友。 Not only you but also your friend is to blame.

= Your friend as well as you is to blame.

27.

 not A  but B

不是A而是B

= B  not A

  * 我感兴趣的不是化学,而是物理。

     What I am interested in is not chemistry, but physics.

= What I am interested in is physics, not chemistry.

28.

 人 + be above +

Ving

耻于…;不屑…

n.

  * 她不屑发问。          She is above asking questions.

29.

 the last + n.      最不可能的…;再怎么说也不会的…

  *他是最不可能出卖你的人。(他再怎么说也不会出卖你)

    He will be the last person to betray you.

30.

  fail to + V

 未能…

  never fail to + V

 一定…;务必…

= be unable to + V

 = V + without fail

* 他未能实时到达。                  *我一定会守信。

  He failed to arrive in time.              I never fail to keep my word.

 = He was unable to arrive in time.       = I keep my word without fail.

31.

 一点也不……;绝不…

  … not …at all = … in no way = … by no means = … not in the least

 = far from …= anything but …

  * 那男孩一点也不用功。    The boy is not diligent at all.

    = The boy is far from diligent.

32.

很多….

 Much

  + 不可数名词

 many

  + 可数名词

 not a little

 Not a few

 no little

 no few

 quite a little

 quite a few

 a great deal of

 a great number of

  * 他有很多钱,但我有很多书。

     He has much money, but I have many books.

    = He has not a little money, but I have not a few books.

    = He has no little money, but I have no few books.

    = He has quite a little money, but I have quite a few books.

= He has a great deal of money, but I have a great number of books.

33.

 It goes without saying that …..

不用说都知道….

 Needless to say, ……

   * 不用说都知道诚实是最上策。

     It goes without saying that honesty is the best policy.

    = Needless to say, honesty is the best policy.

34.

 否定字词放句首的倒装句。应按问句形式,倒装助动词。

 Never, No, Seldom, Little, Not, Nothing…

+

助V + S + V …..

be + S ….

 Hardly, Rarely, Scarcely, …

 By no means, Under no circumstances, …

   * 我将永远忘不了那一段美好的求学时代。

      I shall never forget the beautiful school days.

= Never shall I forget the beautiful school days.

     他很少迟到。                          我绝不会原谅他。

      He is hardly late.                         I will forgive him by no means.

     = Hardly is he late.                       = By no means will I forgive him.

35.

Only词组放句首的倒装句

 Only ….. +

助V + S + V …..

be + S ….

  * 我们只有靠着努力工作才能成功。

We can succeed only by working hard.

   = Only by working hard can we succeed.

36.

地方副词放句首的倒装句

 

地方副词 +

  V + S(名词)

    çV需为不及物动词

  S(代名词) + V

 

  * 乞丐在大门口等。                         * 她坐在柜台后面。

The beggar waited at the gate.                   She sat behind the counter.

   = At the gate waited the beggar.                 = Behind the counter she sat.

36.

主词补词放句首的倒装句

 主词补词 + V + S                  çV需为不及物动词(所以后面才有主词补语)

  * 我的生活很空虚。      My life is empty.= Empty is my life.

37.

 So(也) 的倒装句

 So +

助V

+ S

 …也是。

  So + S +

助V

  …的确…。

 Be

 Be

= S +

助V

, too

 = Yes,  S +

助V

 Be

 Be

  * 你年轻,我也是。                  *A:听说你做得很好。      B:的确是。

You are young, and so am I.            A: I hear you did a good job.    B: So we did.

   = You are young, and I am, too.        = A: I hear you did a good job.    B: Yes, we did.

  * 否定「也不」倒装要用neither。

如:You are not young, and I am not, either

   = You are not young, and neither am I.       ß用neither后面不要再有not

38.

 

 as(像), than(比) 的倒装句

 ……  as

助V

 +  S

  ……  than

助V

  + S

 be

be

= ……  as  +  S

助V

 = ……  than  +  S

助V

 Be

be

  * 他买的衣服和他太太的一样多。

     He has bought as many clothes as has his wife.

   = He has bought as many clothes as his wife (has).

    我们的教务主任比校长能干。

     Our director of studies is more capable than is our principal.

   = Our director of studies is more capable than our principal is.

   = Our director of studies is more capable than our principal.

39.

 such(如此的), so(如此地) 的倒装句          如此…以致于……

  S  is  such  +

that子句

  S  is  so  adj.  +

that子句

as to V

as to V

= Such  is  S  +

that子句

= So  adj.  is  S  +

that子句

as to V

as to V

  * 我的英文进步很大所以父母很高兴。

    My progress in English was such that it pleased my parents.

   = My progress in English was such as to please my parents.

   = Such was my progress in English that it pleased my parents.

   = Such was my progress in English as to please my parents.

   = My progress in English was so great that it pleased my parents.

   = My progress in English was so great as to it please my parents.

   = So great was my progress in English that it pleased my parents.

   = So great was my progress in English as to please my parents.

40.

 “It”做「虚主词」

              (for 人) to V

  It + V …..+  that子句

              wh子句

  * 整天待在家对健康不好。

It is bad for health to keep indoors all day.

  = It is bad for health that one keeps indoors all day.

41.

 “It”做「虚受词」

                          (for 人) to V

  S + Vt + it + 受词补语 +   V …..+  that子句

                          wh子句

  * 我认为整天待在家对健康不好。

I think it bad for health to keep indoors all day.

  = I think it bad for health that one keeps indoors all day.

  = I think (that) it is bad for health to keep indoors all day.

  = I think (that) it is bad for health that one keeps indoors all day.

42.

 …据说…;…听说…

 People(They)  say 

that  S +V

= I(We) hear

= I’m(We’re) told

= It is said

= S + is said + to V

  * 据说他从前很有钱。

     People say that she was rich.

   = It is said that she was rich.

   = She is said to have been rich.

43.

    S1 + V  连接词  S1+ V

 = ……..先行词 +  (关系代名词) …..      ç用关代连接两句有一相同名词的句子

  * 我有一个做老师的叔叔。              * 我有一个我从未见过的叔叔。

I have an uncle, and he is a teacher.          I have an uncle, and I have never seen him.

   = I have an uncle who is a teacher.          = I have an uncle (whom) I have never seen.

  * 我有一个全家都在美国的叔叔。

     I have an uncle, and his family are all in America

   = I have an uncle whose family are all in America.

44.

 凡是…的人(们)……..。

 Those (people) who子句

 + 复数V

 He  who子句

  + 单数V

 They  who子句

 One  who子句

 People  who子句

 Anyone  who子句

 Such (people) as子句

 Whoever子句

  * 凡是有钱的人都不会缺乏朋友。

    Those who have money do not want for friends.

   =Such as have money do not want for friends.

   =He who has money does not want for friends.

   =Whoever has money does not want for friends.

45.

 as 或 which当关代,代替前面的词组或整个句子。

 …词组

, as[which] …

 …子句

 As ..., ………….                    ças子句还可移到句首,which子句不行

  * 他是外国人,这是我从他的口音知道的。

He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent.

   = He was a foreigner, which I knew from his accent.

   = As I knew from his accent, he was a foreigner,

   (= He was a foreigner, and I knew it from his accent.)

46.

准关系代名词but, as, than

1. 否定字 … +  but 不完整子句       没有…不…       ß but有否定的意思

2. such

  the same  …+  as 不完整子句      …像….

  as

3. 比较级…+  than 不完整子句       …比…

   * 我们班没有人不希望进大学。

      In our class there is no one that does not hope to go to college.

    = In our class there is no one but hopes to go to college.

     让孩子们读点使他们更好、更聪明的书。

      Let children read those books which will make them better and wise.

    = Let children read such books as will make them better and wise.

      结果产品供过于求。

      As a result, there are more products than are required.

47.

 …像…一样

…不像…一样

 as

adj.

as  S + V

 not  as[so]

adj.

as  S + V   

adv.

adv.

  * 今天不像昨天一样热。

It is not as hot today as it was yesterday.      ß否定句中,第一个as可用so代

= It is not so hot today as it was yesterday.

   (=It is not so[as] hot today as yesterday.)

48.

 …是最….

 S + …比较级…+ than any other ….

   No

so … as

比较级…than

 

 = never  … + 

  + S

   can’t

 

  * 生命是一切东西中最宝贵的

     Life is more precious than any other thing.(= Life is the most precious of all.)

   = Nothing is so precious as life.

   = No other thing is more precious than life.

49.

 The 比较级 …, the 比较级…..     越…就越…

  * 他等得越久就越生气。

    The longer he waited, the angrier he became.

我们遭遇的挫折越多,我们的国家就越强大。

    The more frustrations we encounter, the stronger our country becomes.

50.

 As …, so ….     正如…,…也一样。

  *怎样播种,就会怎样收成。(正如你播种,你也一样地收成)

   As you sow, so you shall reap.

  = As you sow, so shall you reap.

  (= You must reap what you have sown.)

51.

 A之于B犹如C之于D。

 A is to B

 as

 C is to D

what

  * 阅读之于心灵,犹如食物之于身体。

Reading is to the mind as food is to the body.

   = Reading is to the mind what food is to the body.

   (= As food is to the body so is reading to the mind.)

52.

 … no more … than …  和…一样不…(两者皆非…)

 … no less … than …   和…一样…(两者皆一样…)

  * 她跟你一样不用功。                  * 你跟你母亲一样漂亮。

     She is no more diligent than you.          You are no less beautiful than your mother.

   = She is not diligent, nor are you.            = You are as beautiful as your mother.

   = Neither she nor you are diligent.           = Both you and your mother are beautiful.

53.

 宁愿...也不愿...

 would    rather 

 had      sooner

  + V + than + V

= prefer +

 n.

  to

 n.

 Ving

 Ving

= prefer + to V + rather than + V

  * 我宁愿站也不愿坐。

  I would rather stand than sit.

= I would sooner stand than sit

= I had sooner stand than sit.

= I had rather stand than sit

= I prefer standing to sitting.

= I prefer to stand rather than sit.

54.

 not so much  A  as  B   与其说是A不如说是B

  * 人生的成功与其说是在于天才,不如说是在于勤奋。

Success in life depends not so much on talent as on diligence.

55.

 (是...的) 几倍...

                  as + adj. ( + as B )              ß看动词决定用adj.或adv.

 A + V + 倍数 +   adj.比较级 ( + than B )        

                  the 名词  ( + of B )

  * 这条河是那条河的两倍长。

     This river is twice as long as that.

= This river is twice longer than that.

= This river is twice the length of that.

56.

 know better + than to V   不会那么傻到去做...

  * 我不会蠢到去做那样的事。

     I know better than to do such a thing. (= I am not so foolish as to do such a thing.)

57.

 (Al)though  S + V ,  S + V.   虽然...但是...

  * 虽然他穷,但是很快乐。

 Although(Though) he is poor, (yet) he is very happy.

= Although poor, he is very happy.            ß有although就不要有but

= He is poor, but he is very happy.            ß有but就不要有although

58.

 虽然...;尽管...

 Although + S + V ,  ~~.

  For all

  With all

= In spite of

  Despite

  Notwithstanding

 +

  n.

  Ving. ,      .

  * 尽管她有钱,但是并不快乐。

     Although she is wealthy, she is unhappy.

= In spite of her wealth, she is unhappy.

59.

 A  + 名词

 形容词

 副词          + as[though]  S + V , ...........       虽然...;尽管...

 分词

 动词原形

  * 她虽是女流之辈,却很有信心。

Although she is a woman, she has much confidence.

  = Woman as she is, she has much confidence.           ß冠词要去掉

看来难以置信,但却是真的。

Although it seems impossible, it is true.

  = Impossible though it seems, it is true.

即使他去试,他也不可能成功。

Although he may try, he can not succeed.

  = Try as he may, he can not succeed.               ß甚至连动词也可以移前

60.

  Wh-ever ......, S + V.

 无论...(何时、何地、谁、什么...),   。

 =No matter wh- ......, S + V. 

  * 无论什么时候去看他,都会发现他埋首书桌。

Whenever[=No matter when] we call on him, we will find him at his desk.

不管做什么,都要把它做好。

Whatever[=No matter what] you may do, do it well.

不管你是谁的儿子,我一视同仁。

Whosever[=No matter whose] son you are, I can’t make an exception of you.

61.

 Whether ... A or B , ........       无论是A还是B,..........

  * 无论晴雨,我都会在那里。

Whether it may rain or shine, I will be there.

无论他来不来,结果都会是一样。

    Whether he comes or not, the result will be the same.

62.

「虽然......;无论」还有以下两种特殊句型

  Although + S + V ... , ......

 

à  原形V + S   ... , ........

Wh-ever  + S + V ..., ..........

 

 à 原形V + wh-ever + S  ... , ........

  * 虽然家很简陋,但还是没有地方比家好。

Although it is ever so humble, there is no place like home.

  = Be it ever so humble, there is no place like home.

    不管你怎么说,我都不相信。

    Whatever you may say, I don’t believe it.

  = Say what(ever) you may, I don’t believe it.       

63.

 直到...才...

  S ... not V  +  until .....

= Not until ...... + 助V + S + V      ß倒装句

= It is not until ...... + that + S + V

  * 直到十一点,我才睡着。

I didn’t fall asleep until (it was) eleven.

  = Not until (it was) eleven did I fall asleep.

  = It was not until (it was) eleven that I fell asleep.

64.

 一......就......

  As soon as  S + V ,  S + V

 = The moment  S + V ,  S + V  此处moment亦可用minute, instant代替

 = Once  S + V ,  S + V       此处once亦可用directly, immediately, instantly代替

 = On + Ving,  S + V     ß前后主词相同时

 = At + n. ,  S + V     ß前后主词相同时

  * 一听到这消息,他就高兴得发了狂。

As soon as he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy.

   = The moment he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy.

   = The instant he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy.

   = Once he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy.

   = Directly he heard the news, he was beside himself with joy.

   = On hearing the news, he was beside himself with joy.

   = At the news, he was beside himself with joy.

65.

 一......就......     ß此句型只用在过去式中

  As soon as  S + V ,  S + V

= S +  had

hardly

pp

when

S + V

scarcely

before

= S + had  no sooner  pp  than  S + V         ß比较级sooner后面连接词用than

= No sooner  + had + S + pp   than  S + V      ß倒装句

  * 阵雨一过,天空就出现美丽的彩虹了。

    As soon as the shower passed, a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

  = The shower had hardly passed before a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

  = The shower had no sooner passed than a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

  = No sooner had the shower passed than a beautiful rainbow appeared in the sky.

66.

 自从.....已有(一段时间)

 

 It

 is

 一段时间  since  S + Ved.

 

 has been

 

= 一段时间 have passed   since  S + Ved.

  * 我毕业已经有三年了。

It is[has been] three years since I graduated from school.

  = Three years have passed since I graduated from school.

67.

 ......目的是为了......

          so that

  S + V   in order that  S may  V        ß表目的的「连接词」

          that

          so as to

 = S + V   in order to    +  V          ß表目的的「不定词」

          to

         with a view to

 = S + V  for the sake of    +  n.[Ving]   ß表目的的「介系词」

         with the aim of

  * 我们努力用功目的是为了要有所成就。

We study hard so that we may succeed.

  = We study hard that we may succeed.

  = We study hard so as to succeed.

  = We study hard to succeed.

  = We study hard for the sake of success.

68.

 ......目的是为了不要......;以免......;唯恐......

          lest

  S + V   for fear that    S  (should) + 原型V       

          in case that

 =  S + V   for fear of  + Ving.

  * 不要常去那儿,以免招来闲话。

Don’t go there often lest you (should) get yourself talked about.

  = Don’t go there often for fear that you (should) get yourself talked about.

  = Don’t go there often for fear of getting yourself talked about.

  (= Don’t go there often in order not to get yourself talked about.)

69.

 如此......以至于......

  so  +

 adj

  +  ( a + n. )

 +

  that 子句

  as to V

 adv.

  such + ( a ) + ( adj ) + n.

  * 他很诚实所以大家都相信他。

    He is so honest a man that he is trusted by all.

  = He is so honest a man as to be trusted by all.

  = He is so honest that he is trusted by all.

  = He is so honest as to be trusted by all.

  = He is such an honest man that he is trusted by all.

  = He is such an honest man as to be trusted by all.

70.

 一则因为A,再则因为B,......

 What with  A  and  (what with)  B

  * 一方面因为饿,在方面因为累,他因而倒在路上。

    What with hunger and (what with) fatigue, he fell down on the road.

71.

当「介系词」的to: 以下的to都是介系词 (后面要接n.或Ving)

反对: object to + Ving = be opposed to + Ving 

习惯于:be used to + Ving = be accustomed to + Ving

考虑:give thought to + Ving

喜欢:take to + Ving

盼望;期待:look forward to + Ving

专心;致力于:be devoted to + Ving = devote oneself to + Ving

            = be dedicated to + Ving = dedicate oneself to + Ving

            = apply oneself to + Ving

要不要...?:What do you say to + Ving ?

....目的为了:.... with a view to + Ving

因为:owing to + Ving = due to + Ving

 

72.

  used to + V               过去经常........

= would + V  

  be used to +

n.

     习惯于.........

Ving

= be accustomed to +

 n.

 

 Ving

 

  be used to + V             被用来..........

= be used for + Ving

  * 他过去经常熬夜。

 He used to sit up late.

= He would sit up late.

  * 他已习惯于过这种生活。

 He is used to living such a life.

= He is used to such a life.

= He is accustomed to living such a life.

= He is accustomed to such a life.

  * 碎石常用来筑路。

Gravel is much used to make roads.

  = Gravel is much used for making roads.

73.

 以下为后面常接Ving当受词的动词:

 喜爱:enjoy + Ving    练习:practice + Ving   完成:finish + Ving

 介意:mind + Ving    放弃:give up + Ving    保持:keep + Ving     国中程度

 

 期待:anticipate + Ving ( = expect + to V)   避免:avoid + Ving

 建议:suggest + Ving                    冒险:risk + Ving

 忍住;抵抗:resist + Ving                承认:admit + Ving

 真想不到:Fancy + Ving = Imagine + Ving   逃避:escape + Ving

 忍受:stand + Ving                      原谅:excuse + Ving

 否认:deny + Ving                      考虑:consider + Ving

 记得:recall + Ving                      延搁:delay + Ving

 错过:miss + Ving                       感激:appreciate + Ving

 想要:feel like + Ving

 

74.

Need, want, deserve后面接Ving表示被动

 需要被....

  S + need + Ving

= S + need + to be pp.

= S + need + n.

需要被....

S + want + Ving

= S + want + to be pp.

= S + want + n. 

值得被....

S + deserve + Ving

= S + deserve + to be pp.

= S + deserve + n. 

  * 我们的学校需要改善。

Our school needs improving.

  = Our school needs to be improved.

  = Our school needs improvement.

75.

 值得......

 S + be + worth

 Ving

 

 n.

= S + be + worthy

  of being pp.

 

  to be pp.

 

= It is worth while

  Ving

 

  to V

 

= It pays  + to V

 

 

  * 这本书值得买。

 This book is worth buying.

= This book is worthy of being bought.

= This book is worthy to be bought.

= It is worth while to buy this book.

= It pays to read this book.

  * worth和busy是罕见的两个后面要加Ving的形容词。如:He is busy reading.

76.

        difficulty     

        trouble

 have   fun                  + (in) + Ving

        pleasure

        a good(hard) time

  * 我好不容易才找到你的家。

    I had a hard time (in) finding your home.

77.

 go Ving     去从事某活动

 do the Ving  做某件工作

  * 我们去游泳吧。

    Let’s go swimming. (= Let’s go for a swim.)

  * 我自己做饭。

I do the cooking myself. (= I cook myself.)

78.

 以下为后面常接to V当受词的动词:

 要:want + to V      需要:need + to V     希望:hope + to V

 但愿:wish + to V    帮忙:help + to V      学习:learn + to V    国中程度

 决定 decide + to V    想要:would like + to V

 

 害怕:fear + to V     提议:offer + to V     同意:agree + to V

 意欲:mean + to V    拒绝:refuse + to V    设法:menage + to V

 假装:pretend + to V   承诺:promise + to V  下决心:determine + to V

 尝试:attempt + to V   努力:endeavor + to V  期待:expect + to V

 

79.

 以下为后面接to V或Ving当受词皆可的动词:

 开始:begin + to V,  begin + Ving    开始:start + to V,  start + Ving ,

 喜欢:like + to V,  like + Ving,      喜爱:love + to V,  love + Ving,   国中程度

 

 讨厌:hate + to V,  hate + Ving,      计划:plan + to V,  plan + Ving,     

 比较喜欢:prefer + to V,  prefer + Ving, 害怕:dread + to V,  dread + Ving,  

打算:intend + to V,  intend + Ving   停止:cease + to V,  cease + Ving,

 

80.

以下为后面接to V或Ving当受词意义不同的动词:

 stop + to V  停止(做...)

 stop + Ving  停下来,去做...

 remember + to V  记得要去做....

 remember + Ving  记得曾做过....

 forget + to V   忘记要去做....

 forget + Ving   忘记曾做过....

 try + to V   (努力)试着去做好....

 try + Ving   做......试看看有没有效

 go on + to V  接着去做(不同的事)  

 go on + Ving  继续做(同一件事)

 regret + to V  抱歉将要去.......

 regret + Ving  后悔曾......

 人 mean + to V     某人打算......

 事物 mean + Ving   某物的意义是....

 人 need + to V  某人需要去.....

 物need + Ving  某物需要被......

 

= It is useless + to V

             use

= There is no  good   in + Ving

             point

              use

= What is the   good   of + Ving?

              point

81.

 ......没有用;......有什么用呢?

 It is (of) no use +

 to V

 Ving

= It is no good + Ving

* 说也没用。

   It is (of) no use talking.  = It is (of) no use to talk.

  = It is no good talking.    = It is useless to talk.

  = There is no point in talking.  = What is the use of talking?

82.

 突然.....起来

  burst out + Ving

 = burst into + n.

* 她突然哭了起来。                 * 她突然笑了起来。

    She burst out crying.                  She burst out laughing.

  = She burst into tears.                = She burst into laughter.

83.

 动词做句子的主词      ß动词要改成To V或Ving

 To V ......

+ V(单数) ........

 Ving ......

* 早睡早起有益健康。

    To keep early hours is good for health.

   = Keeping early hours is good for health.

84.

 too

adj.

adv.

to V

太.....而不......

 adj.

  enough ......(to V)   够......所以会......

for + O.

 adv.

  * 他太年轻无法承担这工作。

He is too young to do the task.

  = He is too young for the task.  (= He is so young that he can not do the task.)

  * 他很聪明所以会知道那件事。

He is wise enough to know that.

85.

 to V的动作发生的时间

  S + V ...... + to V.         ß两个动作同时发生

  S + V ...... + to have pp.    ß不定词动作发生在先

  * 他似乎现在很有钱。

He seems to be rich.  (= It seems that he is rich.)

  * 他似乎过去很有钱。

He seems to have been rich.  (= It seems that he was rich.)

86.

 更不要说.....;何况......

  S + V ......,

 to say nothing of ......

 not to mention ......

 not to speak of ......

 let alone ........

  * 他连英语都会讲,更不要说中文了。

He can speak English, to say nothing of Mandarin.

  = He can speak English, not to mention Mandarin.

  = He can speak English, not to speak of Mandarin.

  = He can speak English, let alone Mandarin.

87.

 do nothing but + 原形V          只.........(动作)         ß but可换成except

  * 他只是笑。

    He does nothing but eat. (= He does not do anything but eat.)

    *假如前面的动词不是do,nothing but要看成等于only,由该动词决定后面形式。

      如:He enjoys nothing but eating.   他只喜欢吃。        Enjoy + Ving

88.

 不得不......;忍不住......

  can’t help + Ving

        but

= can’t  help but     + V

        choose but

= have no choice but + to V

= have no alternative but + to V

  * 我不得不做。

      I can’t help doing it.

   = I can’t help but do it. = I can’t but do it.

   = I have no choice but to do it.

89.

 即将......;正要......

  be going to + V

= be about to + V

= be on the point of

 Ving

 n.        ß point可换成verge, edge, brink ,eve    

  * 人之将死,其言也善。

 When a man is going to die, his words are good.

= When a man is about to breathe his last, his words are nice.

= When a man is on the point of death, his words are gracious.

90.

 你只要......就可以了。

  All you have to do is + (to) V         ßall后面可以有关代that

= What you have to do is + (to) V         ßwhat后面不可以再有that

= The only thing you have to do is + (to) V

= You have only to V.

  * 你只要尽力而为就行了。

 All you have to do is (to) do your best.

   = What you have to do is (to) do your best.

   = The only thing you have to do is (to) do your best. = You have only to do your best.

91.

 当形容词用的现在分词Ving有主动、正在、令人…...的意思。

 当形容词用的过去分词 pp. 有被动、已经、感到……的意思。

  * 我不会照顾正在哭的婴儿。  I can’t take care of a crying baby.   ß 主动正在哭的

我父亲是一位退休的将军。  My father is a retired general.       ß 已经退休的

这是一项令人振奋的消息。  This is a piece of exciting news.      ß 令人振奋的

激动的暴民纵火烧大楼。    The excited mob set fire to the building. ß 感到激动的

    口语英文比较难。          Spoken English is more difficult   ß被说的

92.

 1.        n. + 形容词子句

    可改成 n. + Ving词组       ß子句中动词为主动

 

 2.        n. + 形容词子句

    可改成 n. + pp.词组        ß子句中动词为被动

  * 那本属于他的书不见了。            * 藏在书里的邮票不见了。

 The book which belongs to him is lost.    The stamp which is hidden in the book is gone.

= The book belonging to him is lost.      = The stamp hidden in the book is gone.

93.

 S + 来往站坐V + 分词       ß 分词当主词补语用

  * 他跑着来。                           他们锻羽而归。 

    He came running.                       They returned defeated.

   *来往动词包含「来」「去」「出发」「回来」等

     站坐动词包含「站」「坐」「躺」「存在」「停留」「休息」等

94.

 

 S +

感官V

使役V

 + O. +

 原形V    ß 一般主动

 Ving      ß 强调正在进行的主动

 pp.       ß 被动

  * 我看见他走进了医院。         * 他走进医院的时候被我看到。

I saw him enter the hospital.        I saw him entering the hospital.

  * 我看见他被送进了医院。         我把我的作文拿去给老师改。

I saw him sent to hospital.          I had my composition corrected by our teacher.

  * 我叫他去做。   I have him do it. = I make him do it.

  = I get him to do it.  ßget人+ to V是超级大例外

95.

 find

 leave  +  O. +

 keep

 Ving    ß主动

 pp.     ß被动

  * 他发现狗被杀了。  He found his dog killed.

    很抱歉让你久等了。  I’m sorry I have kept you waiting so long.

96.

分词构句:

  副词子句, S + V.

= 分词构句, S + V.       ß主动用Ving, 被动用pp.

  * 看到电动玩具时,他高兴得叫了起来。

 When he saw the video machine, he exclaimed with joy.

= (When) Seeing the video machine, he exclaimed with joy. ß意思清楚时,连接词可省。

  * 虽然旅馆客满,我们还是设法弄到一个房间。

     Though the hotel was crowded, we managed to find a room.

= The hotel crowded, we managed to find a room.   ß两句主词不同时,主词还是留下。

97.

分词构句表「接续动作」的变化句型

  S + V and S + V.  

= S + V, 分词构句,      ß主动用Ving, 被动用pp.

  * 她吓呆了,都不知道该怎么办。

 She stood amazed, and (she) did not know what to do.

= She stood amazed, not knowing what to do.

98.

 分词构句表「附带状况」的变化句型

  S1 + V and S2 + V.  

= S1 + V , S2 分词构句         ß主动用Ving, 被动用pp.

= S1 + V , with  S2 分词构句    ß主动用Ving, 被动用pp.

  * 老师站在黑板前,双臂交叉。

     The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, and his arms were folded.

   = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, his arms folded.

   = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, with his arms folded.

   = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, and (he) folded his arms.

   = The teacher stood in front of the blackboard, folding his arms.

99.

 1.  S + may[might] well + V          有理由......;难怪......

 2.  S + may[might] as well + V        最好......;不如......较好

3.        S + may as well  A  as  B       与其B不如A

     S + might as well  A  as  B      做B等于做A

  * 难怪你这么说。

     You may well say so. = You might well say so.

     (= You have good reasons to say so. = No wonder you say so.)

  * 你最好不要鬼混了。

     You may as well not fool around. = You might as well not fool around.

     (= You had better not fool around.)

  * 凡事知之不尽不如不知。

     One may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly.

  * 你借钱给他等于丢到海里。

     You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.

100

 下列助动词后接原形V或have pp.意思不同:

 should V         现在应该 (should = ought to)

 should have pp.   过去应该做而未做的事

He should do that.

He should have done that.

 can(not) V       现在疑问或否定推测

 can(not) have pp. 过去疑问或否定推测

 could have pp.   过去能做而未做的事

Can he do that?

He can’t have done that.

He could have done that.(but he didn’t)

 must V          现在极肯定推测

 must have pp.    过去肯定推测

He must be tired.

He must have done that.

 may V          现在可能                  

 may have pp.    过去可能

He may do that.

He may have done that.

 might V         现在可能

 might have pp.   过去本来可能....(但并未发生)

He might do that.

He might have done that.(but he didn’t)

 didn’t need to V  过去不必做....(但不知做了没)

 needn’t have pp.  过去可以不必做....(但却做了)

He didn’t need to do that.

He needn’t have done that.(but he did.)

 

101.

 「穿衣服」的用法

 1.(动作)穿上.....   人put on 衣服

 2.(状态)穿着.....   人 wear 衣服

               = 人dress 人 + in衣服        (dress  vt. = clothe  vt.)

               = 人be dressed + in 衣服

               = 人be + in 衣服

               = 人 have 衣服 on

  * 衣服穿上跟我走。  Put on your clothes and come with me.

  * 她总是穿着绿色衣服。    She always wears green.

                          = She always dresses herself in green.

                          = She is always dressed in green.

                          = She is always in green.

                          = She always has green on.

102.

 「花时间」的用法

  人 spend 时间 +  (in)  Ving.            ßspend一定是人当主词,后面用Ving

= 人 take 时间 +  to V.

= It  take  (人)  时间 +  to V.              ßtake后面一定用to V

= 事 take  (人)  时间

  * 我花了三天写了这封信。

     I spent three days (in) writing this letter.

= I took three days to write this letter.

= It took me three days to write this letter.

= This letter took me three days.

103.

「花金钱」的用法

  人 spend 金钱 +

(in)  Ving.

 on 物

= It  cost (人) 金钱 + to V

= 事 cost  (人)  金钱             ßcost一定指花钱

  * 我花了一百元买了这本书。

      I spent one hundred dollars on this book.

    = It cost me one hundred dollars to buy this book.

    = This book cost me one hundred dollars.

104.

  very + adj.       非常.....的

= all + 抽象n.

=抽象n. + itself

  * 我们非常快乐。   We are very happy.

                    = We are all happiness.

                    = We are happiness itself.

105.

 表「天气」、「时间」、「距离」,主词要用It

  * 夜里下大雨。  It rained heavily during the night.

                 = There was a heavy rain during the night.

                 = We had a heavy rain during the night.

  * 今天星期五。  It is Friday (today).  (= Today is Friday.)

  * 距离车站有两里路。  It is two miles to the station.

106.

 It is + 非人称adj. + for 人 + to V.     ß描写事

 It is + 褒贬人adj. + of 人 + to V.     ß描写人

  * 你必须帮他的忙。  It is necessary for you to help him.    ß是事情必要,不是人必要

                    (= It is necessary that you should help him.)

  * 你真是不智接受的他的提议。

                      It is unwise of you to accept his offer.  ß笨的是人,不是事情

                    ( = You are unwise to accept his offer.)

「非人称adj.」指necessary, important, possible, difficult, hard, easy, convenient, dangerous等

「褒贬人adj.」指kind, cruel, generous, stingy, careful, careless, polite, rude, wise, foolish等

107.

 It的强调句型

      主词

 It is  受词   +  that 子句

      副词

  * 昨天打他的是我。  It was I that hit him yesterday.

  * 我昨天打的是他。  It was he that I hit yesterday.

  * 我打他是在昨天。  It was yesterday that I hit him.

108.

 前者...................后者..............

 The former ....... the latter .......

 That .................. this ...............

  * 他有一猫一狗,猫很怕狗。

He has a cat and a dog; the former is afraid of the latter.

  = He has a cat and a dog; that is afraid of the this.

109.

 一个...........另一个................

 1. (只有两个时) one ....., and the other ......

 2. (只是不同一个时) one ....., and another ......

 3. (有三个时) one ....., and another ........., and the other ......

  * 他有两只狗,一黑一白。     He has two dogs; one is black and the other white.

  * 知是一回事,行是另一回事。 To know is one thing, and to do is another.

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