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我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

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高三语法:名 词 篇  

2009-09-26 20:31:17|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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纵观高考试题,试题中出现的考点主要有:名词的复数形式;不可数名词的辨认;抽象名词转换成普通名词的名词一体词;名词作定语;双重所有格;名词前多个形容词排列。

一、  名词可数与不可数及修饰词:

  常考的抽象名词有:advice, chalk, furniture, patience, paper, clothing, fun, power, work, oil, jewelery, homework, sugar, information, salt, knowledge, luck, weather, progress, news (word), money

  注意:another不能修饰不可数名词,可说another book,不可说another news。

二、  复合名词的复数形式因词而异:

 1. a man driver (men drivers)     a woman doctor ( women doctors)

 2. a film-goer (film-goers) 电影爱好者

 3. a looker-on (lookers-on) 旁观者    passers-by

 4. a grown-up (grown-ups) 成年人

三、  部分名词的复数形式表示特殊意义:

goods, looks(表情、外貌), times, interests, works, glasses, hairs(头发), drinks(饮料), manners, papers, greens(青菜、蔬菜), irons(熨斗), forces(军队), sands(沙滩), arms, airs(做作的样子、架子) →put on airs

e.g. 1. His mother wants to buy some greens in the market.  She is dressed in green.

2. Her grandfather can not read without glasses.

  In fact her necklace was made of glass.

3. Wood can be made into paper.

  It’s polite for the students to help the teacher collect or hand out papers.

4. It takes a lot of work to build a house.  

A new chemical works will be set up here.

5. The city is in great need of our goods.  How good of you to come and help us!

6. Put down your arms, or we’ll fire.      She carried a box under her arm.

7. What does this French word mean?

  Only by this means can we learn English well.

8. Don’t put on airs before us.   He likes going out for fresh air.

9. She takes no interest in politics.

 

 We should not live only for our own interests.

一、  几个容易误用的名词的单复数:

1.  单复数相同:sheep, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, means, works

2.  只有复数:cattle, people

3.  常以复数形式出现:trousers, glasses, thanks, clothes, remains(遗物), contents, goods, congratulations, means, sports, preparations(准备), tears, repairs, regards, games(运动会)

4.  以s结尾的学科或专有名词常作单数:

politics, maths, physics, the United States, The United Nations

二、  几组易错名词的用法:

1.  many a + 单数名词 = many + 复数名词

2.  集合名词:family, team, audience, enemy, public, group, class, government, company, police, party

作主语时,若看作一个整体时,谓语动词用单数;若表示组成分子,则用复数。

e.g. The police are on duty at the street corner.

     My family is / are going to have a long journey.

3.  population:

1)  作为“人口”的总称或“居民”的总数是不可数名词,谓语用单数。

2)  问“多少人口”时,不说how many或how much,而用what。

3)  在谈到“人口比……多”时,常用large,great;“人口少”时,常用small,而不用much,many或little。

4)  当谈及“有人口”时, 习惯上用have a population of…。

5)  当“百分数/分数+ of the population”作主语时,谓语用复数。

6)  表示某个地区人口时,其前应有定冠词。

7)  population不能与people连用。

e.g. The population in China is very large, and 80% of the population are farmers.

    The city has a population of the million.

三、  表示“许多”的词组:

1.  代替many,修饰可数名词的有:a great number of, a large number of, a good number of, a great many, many a

2.  代替much,修饰不可数名词的有:a great deal of既可修饰可数名词又可修饰不可数名词的有:a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a large

 

1.  / great / good quantity of, large quantities of

e.g. The teacher gave us a large number of examples.

一、  用定冠词加上姓氏的复数形式,表示其全家人或夫妇两人:  the Smiths

二、  名词的双重所有格的用法:

1.  只能用于指人的名词   a friend of my sister’s

2.  前一名词必须泛指或有this,that,those,another,some,every,several,such,any,which,what修饰或限制,或前面有数词。

三、  名词前多个形容词的排列顺序:

  描绘性+大小/新旧/年龄/温度/形式+颜色/形状+起源/出处+材料/目的分类

e.g. a pretty little American girl         an old stone bridge

   a small round pine table            the dirty old green coat

四、  名词用来作定语,修饰名词:

有生命的多用’s或s’的所有格,无生命的多用of短语。

一个名词直接做定语修饰另一个名词,往往属于固定的搭配。

telephone number, school education, air pollution, research work,

bus driver, coffee cup, sports meet, village people

五、  表示具有某种特性、状态、特点、情感、情绪的人或事,表示变化了的词义,这一类抽象名词已完全名词化变为可数名词:

1.  in surprise  /  a surprise

2.  with pleasure  /  a pleasure

3.  have pity on sb.  /  It’s a pity. ( What a pity.)

4.  a man with experience  /  an experience

5.  light(光)   /   a light(灯)

6.  have difficulty in doing sth.  /  meet with many difficulties

7.  failure ( success )

8.  danger(危险)  /  a danger(危险物)

十二、常用名词辨异:

1.  accident / incident:

accident常指不幸的,预料不到的,突发性的意外事件,如灾祸、灾难等;还常与by连用,by accident  偶然    

类似: come across, happen to do, chance to do, by chance

e.g. He had met with an accident on the way. This is why he was late for the meeting.

 

incident指不重要的小事或引起公众注意的事件;也指事变、战争等。

e.g. My father told me of an incident that took place on his first day at school.

1.  affair / business / matter

affair的单数形式作“事情、事件”解,复数形式作“事务、业务”解,用指国内、国际的事务。

   business作“生意”“行业”,没有复数形式。

 matter作“事情、东西、问题”解,通常指必须考虑和处理的事情。

  另外:1)the matter麻烦事

        2)v. 主要用于否定句、疑问句,表示“要紧,有重大关系”

        3)no matter … , as a matter of fact

        4)matter 物质

2.  clothes / cloth / clothing / dress

clothes统指衣服,不能与数词连用,但可以说many(a few,those,my)clothes,

说“一套衣服”可以表达为“a suit of clothes”,其后的谓语动词用复数形式。

   cloth指做衣服的衣料,是不可数名词,但用于特殊用途的布,如“台布”“抹布”等是可数名词,复数形式为clothes。

   clothing指衣服、服装的总称,是集合名词,没有复数形式。

       一件衣服a piece of clothing / an article of clothing,不能说a suit of clothing

   dress指穿在外面的衣服,尤指在社交场合的衣服,可数名词。

3.  fun / joke

fun和joke都有“开玩笑”的意思,fun是不可数名词,而joke可用做动词,表示“开玩笑”,而fun不能用作动词。

同某人开玩笑:make fun of, play a joke / jokes on sb.

              make a joke / jokes about sb. / sth.

4.  in a moment / after a moment / at the moment / for a moment /

the moment (that)… / for the moment

in a moment“一会儿后”,指从现在往后的一段时间,也可指“很短的一段时间内”。

after a moment“一会儿后”,用于过去或将来的某时起往后一段时间。

for a moment作一段时间解时,指“很短暂的一整段时间”。

at the moment“当时”“目前”(= at this moment, then)

the moment that表示“一……就……”    for the moment暂时、目前

5.  pay / wage / salary

 

pay是不可数名词,是个常用词,可替代其他两个词。

salary是可数名词、不可数名词,按月、季或年发给的工资,一般指脑力劳动者的工资。

wage(常用复数),一般指体力劳动者的工资,按日或星期来计算的。

1.  strength / force / energy / power

strength常指固有的潜在力量,指人时,着重力气。

force主要指自然界的力量,如暴力、势力、军事力量等。

energy主要指“人的精力、自然界的能量”

power主要指做一件事情所依靠的能力。

十三、Repeat:

1.  If we had followed his plan, we could have done the job better with less money and fewer people.

2.  Shortly after the accident, two dozen police were sent there to keep order.

3.  We have worked out the plan and now put it into practice.

4.  He is going camping with two other little boys.

5.  We’ve missed the last bus. I’m afraid we have no choice but to take a taxi.

6.  He gained his wealth by printing works of famous writers.

7.  If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a message.

8.  You’ll find this map of great value in helping you to get round London.

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