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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

日志

 
 

介 词 篇  

2009-09-26 20:34:33|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、    考点精析

复习介词时要把握三点:

1.  要注意理解情景意义:同一介词可表达多种意义,同一场合意义不同则介词不同。

2.  突破几个关键介词in,on,at,with,by,from,of,to,for。

3.  注意介词搭配,集中归纳,反复练习。

二、    常用介词基本用法

1.  at:主要表示方向、场所、时间的某一点

at the corner of the street,at dinner,at sixty miles an hour,be sold at three yuan a dozen,come at us

固定搭配:at daybreak,at one time,at the beginning of,at the post office,at the airport,at dawn,at the weekend,at the age of 25,at the same time,at birth,at present,at any time,at a time,at times,at the speed of ,at a height of ,at the latest

表示原因,表示“见/闻……而”。 at the news

2.  in:表示场所、时间与期限、状况、方向。

        be dressed in rags   in English    be sold in pairs

          主要用来表示较长的时间单位,如月份、季节、年份等

        in the 1990s    in the late 19th century

          形成“in+时段名词”的词组或固定搭配

        in those days,in the daytime,in a short while,in no time,in time

          介词in在短语或句型中的省略:

1)     某些形容词/过去分词后接v-ing形式时,v-ing形式前的介词in可以省略。

be busy (in) doing    be engaged (in) doing (忙于……)

2)      某些动词如busy、occupy、employ等,常与反身代词连用,其后的in也可以省略。

busy oneself (in) doing    occupy oneself (in) doing

3)      某些动词如spend、pass、waste等与表示时间的名词连用,后面的介词也可以省略。

spend time (in) doing     waste time (in) doing

4)      在have no difficulty in doing sth.、have no trouble in doing sth.、have no business in doing sth.等句型中介词也可以省略。

5)      在句型There is no use (in)doing sth.中,介词也可省略。

固定搭配:in the world,in (the)future,in the snow /rain / storm,in ink,in short,in public,in return,in turn,in danger,in this way,in that case,in search of,in place of,in the air,in case,in common,in the hope of,in other words,in praise of,in silence,in space,in one’s opinion,in modern times,in surprise,in a queue,in the open air

3.  on:主要表示在上面、根据或基础、有关或涉及的方面、表示某天。

固定搭配:on doing sth.,on the afternoon of October,on Tuesday evening,on foot,hit sb. on the head,on the right/ left,on fire,

on duty,on sale,on the radio,on and on,on show,on earth,

on average,on one’s own

注意:一般带有宗教色彩的节日名词前面用at,如圣诞节。

      一般的节日名词前用on。

4.  by主要表示接近、时限、动作的执行者、方式。

固定搭配:by the village,be paid by the month,by oneself,

by chance,by foot(=on foot),by hand,learn … by heart,

by mistake,by accident,by force,year by year,side by side,

stone by stone,by now / then

5.  for主要表示目的、原因、交换值以及时间和距离的长度。

固定搭配:make sth. for sb.,for some reason or other,

thank sb. for sth.,for almost one year,for example,

for the time being,for sale,for free,for one thing,for nothing

6.  of表示部分与全体的关系、所有关系、来源和所用的材料。

of所有格表示的多种关系:

1)  从属关系:the wheel of the car

2)  局部----整体关系:some of the water

3)  量化关系:a cup of tea

4)  描述关系:a professor of learning(知识丰富的教授)

5)  同位关系: the city of Beijing

6)  动宾关系:the study of the map(研究地图)

7)  主谓关系:the determination of the workers(工人们的决心)

固定搭配:be of much use,rob sb. of sth.,be fond of,make fun of,be tired of,of one’s own,instead of,run out of

7.  to 主要表示方向、程度、结果、关系和位置。

固定搭配:rise to / by …,to one’s surprise / joy/ astonishment,

to the east of,key to…,come up to,add up to,be open to the public,to the point,thanks to,suit … to …,stick to,refer to

三、    容易错、常考的介词及搭配

1.  be made of,be made from,be made into,be made in

2.  call on = visit,call for = go and pick up,call at one’s house or office

3.  on business (出差)/ strike()罢工 / duty(值日) / holiday / fire / vacation / watch(警戒) / sale(出售) / leave(请假) / guard(警戒)

4.  have some trouble / difficulty (in) doing sth.,have a habit / idea / plan of doing sth.

5.  A is pleased to B,B is pleased with A(对……感到满意)

6.  be tired of,be tired from

7.  with the help of,under the leadership of

8.  by means of(使用),by way of(经由),by heart(记住),by the way

9.  out of question(毫无疑问),out of the question(毫不可能)

10.            prevent / stop / keep sb. from doing sth.

11.            be thankful to sb. for sth.

12.            steal sth. from sb.,rob sb. of sth.

13.            insist on doing sth.,persist in doing sth.,stick to,go on doing sth.

14.            set about doing sth.,set out to do sth.

15.            look sb. in the face,hit sb. on the face,lead the cow by the nose

16.            do a favour for sb. = do sb. a favour

17.            tell A from B

四、    介词的惯用型

1.  above all(首先),after all,at all(全然),in all

2.  day after day,year after year,one after one,one after another

3.  at peace(和平),at war(战争),at times(时常),at dinner

4.  by oneself,by all means(尽一切办法、务必),by chance,by accident,

by no means(决不、并没有),by means of(用、依靠) ,by the way

5.  in her teens(十几岁),in pain,in danger,in need

6.  to one’s joy / sorrow / surprise

7.  with care(仔细地),with joy / pleasure(高兴地),with one’s help,

with the best wishes(致以我们良好的祝愿),without difficulty(毫不困难地),without exception(毫不例外),without delay(立即、马上)

8.  according to(依据),along with(和……一起),as to(至于……),because of,except for(除……之外),instead of(代替)

9.  out of order(不正常),out of date,out of trouble(脱离困境),out of sight,

out of debt(还清了债务),out of touch(没有联系)

10.          at the bottom of,at the centre of,at the end of,at the top of,

at the cost of(以……为代价)at the sight of,at the thought of,at a speed of

11.in memory of(纪念),in favour of(同意),in the habit of(有……习惯),in touch with(与……保持联系),on the left of,on the eve of(在……前夕)

12.          from time to time(不时地), from day to day(天天), from hand to hand(一个传一个),from side to side(左右地),from car to car(一个车厢一个车厢地),from bad to worse(越来越差),from beginning to end(从头到尾),from hand to mouth(仅能糊口),from head to foot,from start to finish,from one to another

五、    掌握方式、手段、工具的表达方法

1)  in +文字、语言、材料名词

 in English (ink, pencil, capital letters)

2)  with +工具、机器;人体器官;情绪、情感、态度的名词

 with a branch, with one’s nose, with pride, with satisfaction,

with the help of, with one’s permission

3)  by 表示泛指的方式、手段

 by bus, by land, by means of(用……方法), by way of(经由) , by doing sth.,

 by hand(手工), by post(由邮局传递), by letter(用写信的方式), by electricity, by hard work, by the year, by the hour(by + the + 单位名词) 按……

4)  其它表示方式(情况、状况、手段)的表示法

 through the radio / by radio / on the radio, through / by / from practice,

by telephone (on the telephone), on foot, on the train, in satisfaction, in surprise, in silence, in a low voice, in comfort, in sorrow, in high / good / poor spirits,

in anger, in safety, in debt, in good order, in good / poor health, in tears,

in use, in pain,

六、    某些名词和介词的固定搭配

1)  要求to:key, answer, visit, apology, introduction

2)  要求in:interest, satisfaction, expert

3)  要求on:mercy, congratulation

4)  要求其它:victory over, struggle with, price for, respect for

七、    某些形容词和介词的固定搭配

1)  be afraid of 担心  be afraid for替……而担心

2)  be angry about / at sth.因……而生气   be angry with sb.对……某人发怒

3)  be anxious for sth.渴望  be anxious about sth. / sb.担心

4)  be different from 与……不同  be indifferent to …   ……不关心

5)   be good at …擅长 be good for …对……有益  be good of sb. to do sth.友好

6)  be strict with sb.对……严格 be strict in sth.

7)  be popular with sb.受到……欢迎  be popular in some place流行在 ……

be popular for因……而流行

8)   be pleased with + n.或what从句;be pleased at +抽象名词  听、看到而高兴

9)  be disappointed at sth. ;be disappointed with sb.对……失望

10)be known to sb. ;be known with + n.或从句 ;be known for因……而著名

11)          be absent from缺席

12)          be devoted to …献身于……

13)          be open to …对……开放

14)          be poor / clever / expert at …

15)          be sorry for …替/为……后悔

16)          be rich in … be interested in …

17)          be proud of (take pride in)

18)          be satisfied with / by … be sure of / about …

19)          be fond of, be fit for, be busy with sth. (in doing sth.)

20)          be late for, be ready for

21)          be similar to … ;be wrong with …

八、    以to为中心构成短语的归纳

   belong to, come to(苏醒), look forward to, lead to, stick to, refer to, turn to,

drink to(为……干杯), object to(反对), reply to the letter, help oneself to,

sing / dance to the music(和着……在……声中唱/跳), devote oneself to

九、    以for为中心构成短语的归纳

   ask for, call for(去接某人), care for(关心), go in for(从事), answer for(对……负责), send for, pay for, praise sb. for(赞扬某人某事), head for(向……方向移动), search for, take … for …(误以为), leave for, prepare for(为……准备), thank sb. for, make a dive for(向……猛冲), make up for(弥补……损失)

十、    以on为中心构成短语的归纳

come on来吧, call on拜访, pass on传递, carry on进行下去, live on sth.靠……生活, depend on依靠, have on穿着, have pity on同情, look on … as …把……看作,

push on推动, spy on窥探, switch / turn on旋开, wait on服侍, walk on继续走, spend…on …在……上花费时间、金钱, operate on给……动手术,

take on a new look呈现新面貌

十一、吊尾介词

1)         某些形容词后接不及物动词或“V+介”型短语动词的不定式形式表“反射”,常用吊尾介词。

A)     fit, easy, hard, good, difficult, comfortable, heavy等形容后,常用吊尾介词。

e.g. The girl is easy to get along with.

B)     be worth doing, be worthy of being done, be worthy to be done, want / require / need doing表反射,常用吊尾介词。

e.g. The problem is worth dealing with.

   The book is worthy of being referred to.

2)         不及物动词的不定式修饰表“涉及对象、场所、工具、手段、方式、材料等”意义的名词时常带吊尾介词。

e.g. There is nothing for us to worry about.           a room to live in

3)         定语从句中,先行词被一个不及物动词所修饰,则不及物动词后要带介词,先行词被“V+介”组成的短语动词所修饰,介词常在句尾。

e.g. He is the very man I just spoke to.    This is the life he is used to.

4)         以what,whose,who,whatever等引导的宾语从句、表语从句中常出现“吊尾介词”。

e.g. I don’t know what you do it for.

5)         强调句型和特殊疑问句中由于被强调部分和疑问词位置变更,常出现吊尾介词。在上下文意义清楚时,特殊疑问句常用省简结构。

e.g. It is the poor boy that we gave the books to.

   What for?(为什么?)Where to?(去哪儿?)Who with?(和谁去?)

6)         被动语态中“V+介”短语常用吊尾介词。

e.g. He was listened to to come here.      He has never been spoken to in this way.

十二、双重介词

双重介词是两个介词的重叠使用,表达两个介词共有的更精确更明了的含义,从表达意义的角度分析,双重介词用在一个介词难以全面表达含义的场合,或者是需要从两个角度来描述其具体意义的场合,一般地,前一个介词意义含糊,后一个介词比较具体或从另一个角度对前者进行补充完善。

e.g. New shoots will come up from round roots.新芽从旧根周围长出。

(from和round同属地点位置范畴,但一个介词均不足以全面表意。)

He won’t come back until after sunset.到太阳落山之后他才回来。

(until与after同属时间范畴。)

He has traveled everywhere except in Japan.

Water began to flow out instead of into the bottle.

十三、常用介词辨异

1.  about, on, of   关于

on多用于慎重的、正式的语言交际场合。常见于“学术上”的“论文”或“演说”等题目,可供专门研究这一问题的人阅读,有“论及”之意。

about表示的内容多为普遍、不那么正式,有“述及”之意。

of作“关于”讲,表示提及、涉及某人(事)时,只表示事情存在或发生,并不涉及详情;有时与about意义相近,但有时意义很不同,常与动词know、hear、learn(听说)、speak、talk、think、tell等连用。

2.  except, except for, except that, but, besides, beside

except“除……之外”,指不包括……,后面常接名词、代词(人称代词常用宾格),还可接介词短语、副词和动词不定式,此时相当于but,但不定式常不带to。

except for“除了,只有”,意思和except一样,主要指说明基本情况后,而在细节上加以修正,后面常接名词性短语。

except that“除了,只是”,意思和except、except for一样。但在用法上,主要指其后常接名词性从句,也可接when、where等词引导的其它从句。

but所含“除……外”的意思不如except明确。but多用在代词(主要是不定代词、否定代词和疑问代词)之后。

besides表示“除……外还有”,所排除的事物常包括在所述范围之内。另外,besides可用作副词,相当于also,有“而且,加之,何况”之意。

beside也是介词,表示“在附近”,只不过形似besides,容易相互混淆。

【对比】如果在区别前后有同类的词语时,就用except,否则就用except for。

e.g. This book has no blunder except a few mistakes.

   This book is interesting except for a few mistakes.(前面无同类词语)

   Every one of us, except him, went to see the exhibition.

3.  including, included

including是一个介词,意思为“包括”,它一般放在包括对象的前面。

included是一个过去分词,意思也是“包括”。它一般用于被动语态中,也可放在包括对象的后面。

4.  in, later, during   都与时段名词搭配

1)  in作介词,同时段名词搭配,即“in + 时段名词”,一般用于将来时。

2)  later表示“……以后”,常同时段名词搭配,即“时段名词 + later”,常与过去时连用。

3)  during作介词时,同时段名词搭配,即“during + 时段名词”,常与现在时或将来时等连用。

5.  in, with, by  用

with通常指“用”具体的或有形的工具、器官等,有时也表示“用”某种手段、音调等。

by作介词表示“用”时,一般指“用”方式、手段等。后面常接动名词或名词,后面接名词时,该名词前面一般不加修饰语。

in指“用”语言、字体、墨水、体裁、风格、方式、现金、顺序等。

 

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