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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

日志

 
 

情态动词、主谓一致  

2009-09-26 20:45:17|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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情 态 动 词

一、一般疑问句中几个情态动词的问与答

    1.  Need I/he/…?

        Yes,you/he/…must.(不用need)

    2.  Must I/ he/…?

        No,you/ he/…needn’t/don’t(doesn’t,won’t)have to.(不用mustn’t)

    3.  May I/ he/…?

        No,you/ he/…mustn’t.(少用may not)

    4.  Could(Can)you…?

        Yes,I can (不用could)

    5.  Shall I/she/ he…?

        No,you(she,he)needn’t/can’t/mustn’t

 

二、情态动词表“推测”

    1.can,may,must使用的句式:

    1)肯定陈述句中:must表“肯定、必定、一定”意,may/might表“也许,或许”意。

    2)否定陈述句中:can’t/couldn’t表“不可能”意,may not/might not表“也许不、可能不”意。

    3)疑问句中:只能用can或could,不能用must,may或might。

    注意:表推测的could,might并不是指过去时间,而是表示比can,may把握性略小些的情况。

    2.对目前状态的推测:

    1)must/may/might/can/could+be+表语

    例如:She must be a teacher.她肯定是老师。She can’t/couldn’t be a doctor.她肯定不是医生。 He may not/might not be a doctor.他可能不是医生。

    2)must/may/might/can/could+一些不能用于进行时的静态动词(如:have,exist,live,like,hate,own,belong to等)

    例如:She must have her own car,for she has a lot of money.

    That kind of bird may live in the valleys.

    3.对目前正在发生的事情进行推测:

    句式:must/may/might/can/could+be doing

    例如:They must be waiting for us.他们肯定正在等我们。

    She may/might be doing her homework.她可能正在做作业。

    Can/Could he be playing football?他会正在踢足球吗?

    4.对已发生的事情进行推测:

    句式:must/may/might/can/could+have done

    例如:There’s no lignt in the room. They must have gone to bed./She knows nothing about the film. She can’t/couldn’t have seen it./Can/Could he have been a doctor?/He may/might(not)have been a teacher./They must have been watching TV at nine last night./Can/Could she have stayed in Beijing last year?

    注意:will have done句式也可表“肯定/可能已经…”推测意。

    例如:He will have learned advanced mathematics,for he knows a lot about it. 他肯定/可能学过高等数学,因为他对此懂得很多。

 

三、“情态动词+have done”用法

    1.should/ought to +have done,意“本应该…”,含有责备或后悔意。

    例如:You should have come here a little earlier./I ought to have sent him to school./

    2.shouldn’t/oughtn’t to+have done,意“本不应该”,含有责备或后悔意。

    例如:You shouldn’t have watered the flower./I oughtn’t to have scolded her for such a small thing.

    3.might have done,意“过去可能做”;could have done意“本能够做”,两者都含有委婉批评或遗憾之意,也可表对过去情况的推测。

    例如:He might have gone to Nanjing with Professor Wang.last week,but he was ill.上星期他本可以和王教授一起去南京的,可他病了。We could have finished the work ahead of time.我们本来是能够提前完成工作的。

 

四、情态动词在反意疑问句中的用法

    1.“肯定祈使句+附加问句”结构,附加问句常用will/would/won’t you形式。

    例如:Stand still,will/would/won’t you?

    2.“否定祈使句+附加问句”结构,附加问句常用will/would you形式。

    例如:Don’t watch TV,will/would you?

    3.Let’s…,shall we? ; Let us…,will/won’t you?

    4.含有must句子的反意问句

    1)must表示“必须”时,附加部分常用needn’t,也可用mustn’t.例如:He must go with you,needn’t/mustn’t he?

    2)mustn’t表“一定不能”时,附加部分用may.例如:She mustn’t leave,may she?

    3)must表“一定、想必”推测意时,附加部分主要有下列几种形式:

    A.He must be an engineer,isn’t he?They must be writing now,aren’t they?(这类句子问句前部分含“must be…”或“must be doing…”。)

    B.She must have a car/live there, doesn’t she?

    C.He must have seen the film,hasn’t he?(这类句子问句前部分的谓语为must have done,句子无具体过去时间状语。)

    D.He must have seen the film last week,didn’t he?(这类句子问句前面部分的谓语为must have done,句子有具体过去时间状语。)

    E.Mother must have been shopping then,wasn’t she?(前面部分谓语为must have been doing。)

    5.含有may表推测的句子,其反意问句形式与must表推测的反意问句形式相似。

    例如:She may have finished her homework,hasn’t she?

 

五、几组词语辨析

    1.must与have to:must强调说话者的主观看法,have to强调客观需要,表示“不必”意要用needn’t或don’t/didn’t/won’t have to,不能用mustn’t。

    2.can/could与be able to:can多用于现在时,也可用于将来时,could只用于过去时,be able to可用于各种时态。表示“过去经过努力而做成(或没做成)”要用was/were(not) able to ,而不用could(not)。例如:He worked hard,but he wasn’t able to pass the exam.

    3.will,would,used to:都可表“习惯”意。①will表示不受时间限制的习惯性动作。如:Fish will die out of water./ She’ll sit for hours without saying anything.

②would表示过去习惯性的动作,但不涉及与现在情况的对比。如:He would walk by the river in the morning.注意:would后不能跟表状态动词。例如不能说He would be late for school last year. ③used to表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但这种习惯现在已不存在了。如:He used to get up early. He used to be late for school.

 

情态动词考点分析

    1.-Could I borrow your dictionary?   (NMET)

      -Yes,of course you________.

      A.might             B.will          C.can          D.should

    析:B、D意明显不合;A语气不妥,与of course不符。此题Could是表Can意的委婉说法,并非过去时,所以答案应为C。

    2.-Shall I tell John about it?

      -No,you_________.I’ve told him already.   (NMET)

      A.needn’t         B.wouldn’t        C.mustn’t         D.shoudn’t

    析:B意明显不合用,可排除。mustn’t意“不许、不得”,shouldn’t意“不应该”都不合情景。只有needn’t表“不必”与下文“I’ve told him already”相贴切。   

    3.-There were already five people in the car,but they managed to take me as well.

      -It_________a comfortable journey.   (NMET)

      A.can’t be                     B.shouldn’t be     

      C.mustn’t have been            D.couldn’t have been   

    析:A、B是对现在情况而言,与情景不合。表否定推测不能说mustn’t have been,只有D选项“不可能是”意思切合,时态也对,故为正确答案。

    4.The fire spread through the hotel very quickly ,but everyone________get out.

(NMET)

      A.could       B.would        C.was able to               D.had to

    析:根据题干提供的情景B、D皆应排除。在A、C两选项中,因为根据情景要选一个“经过努力能够”这样意思的词,故定答案为C。

    5.I told Sally how to get here,but perhaps I________for her.

      A.had to write it out            B.must have written it out

      C.should have written it out     D.ought to write it out   

    析:A项意“(当时)不得不写出来”,不合题意;D项意“(现在)应写出来”也不合题意;B项意“(当时)肯定已写出来”明显不对。只有表“当初应该写出来”意的C项才合上下文。

    6.That young man has made so much noise that he_________not have been allowed to attend the concert.  (上海高考题)

      A.could         B.must        C.would         D.should

    析:若选A。意“不可能已被允许…”与情景不合,应排除;B项不可选;C项意“当时将不会被允许…”也与情况相悖。只有D“should not have been allowed…”表示“当初不该让他…”才合题意。

    7.-Can I help you,sir?

      -Yes,I bought this radio here yesterday,but it______.(NMET)

      A.didn’t work    B.couldn’t work    C.can’t work    D.doesn’t work

    析:若选A。意“昨天不响(今天响了)”,不合题目情景;若选B。其意是“当时不能工作(现在能工作了)”,显然不合题;若选C。意为“这台收音机根本不能工作(是废品)”这未免显得武断;只有D表“这台机子不响(有毛病)”意才能合理地表达来找商店服务员的原因。

主谓一致(Agreement)

   1.“Either A or B+谓语”结构,谓语取决于B。

   例:Either the students or their teacher dislikes basketball,otherwise they                   

          would take part in the basketball match.

          但在一般疑问句中,谓语取决于A。

    例如:Do either the students or their teacher dislike basketball?

            Is either he or you going there?

            这种谓语取决于与其最近的主语现象叫做“就近原则”。

    2.“Neither A nor B+谓语”结构,谓语多取决于B。但现代英语也出现复数谓语,      

        理由是neither A nor B是两部分之和,为复数概念,故其后可用复数谓语。

      例如:Neither she nor I was(或were)fortunate enough to gain extra points.

            她和我都不幸未能获得附加分。

            Neither you nor he does(或do)well in maths.

    3.Neither of…接单、复谓(通常视为单数,但在口语中,从意义上亦可视为复数)

       None of…接单、复谓

      例:Neither of them is(或are)right.    

          None of you is(或are)fit for the job.

 

   4.      as well as(以及)

           (together)with(以及)B+谓语”结构,谓语取决于A。

   “A  along with(以及)

           but(除去)

           rather than

  

  例:                       as well as


          The trainer      along with       two gymnasts is in the gym.

                           (together) with

          教练和两个体操运动员在体操房里。

          All but Li Dong have passed the test. 除了李东所有人都通过了考试。

          Nobody but Li Dong and Wang Hong has passed the test.

          除了李东和王宏没有什么人通过那场考试。

    5. 表示钱数、时间、长度、数学等概念名词其后通常用单数谓语。

    例:200 yuan / 500 dollars / 20 minutes is not enough for us.

                    makes  15.

        10 and 5                    10加5等于15.

                    is

                      makes 5.

        10 minus 5                   10减5等于5.

                      is

        (以上两数词例,现代英语认为make,are也对。)

         20 kilometres is too much for them. 20公里是他们吃不消的。

    6. There be 结构中be的形式取决于靠近be的名词,若是单数名词,则be为is/was;

     若是复数名词,则be为are/were(即第1条中的“就近原则”)。

    例如:There is a desk,two chairs and three sofas in the room.

          There are three sofas,two chairs and a desk in the room.

    7. a group of…,a team of…后跟复谓、单谓皆可,跟复谓的理由是不止一个人,跟单谓的理由是将许多人视为“一组”、“一队”这样的一个单位体。

    例如:A group/team of students are /is cleaning the street.

    8. 象school ,class,family,team,group government等这类群体名词,其后谓语可能是单数形式,也可能是复数形式。通常视其为一个整体单位时,用单数谓语;视其为群体成员时,则用复数谓语。

    例如:The class are having a meeting. 这个班学生在开会。

          The class is not very big. 这个班不是大班。

          The family enjoy singing and dancing. 这家人喜欢唱歌跳舞。

          The family has only three persons.这家只有三口人。

    9. 象police,clothes,trousers这类复数概念名词,其后总是跟复数谓语。the wounded 

    (伤员)后总是跟复数谓语。

    10. 象clothing,news,information,advice这类不可数名词后应跟单数谓语,但它们前面有可数性短语修饰时,也可跟复数谓语。

    例如:The clothing is very nice.The news is interesting.

          Five articles of clothing are over there.

          Three pieces of news were announced on TV.

    11.百分数of+复名+复谓,百分数of+单名/不可数名词+单谓

    例:40 percent of the students are girls.

        80 percent of the work/the book has been finished.

        分数后的谓语形式同百分数。

 

 

    12. who/why/how/whether/if/than引导的名词从句+单谓

    例:How he got there is unknown./Why she did it remains a puzzle./It’s lucky that he is still alive.

    13. A (large)number of+复名+复谓。

    例:A number of books are over there.

        A large amount of+不可数名词+单谓。

    例:A large amount of money has been spent.

        The  number of+复名+单谓。

    例:The number of the students in our school is 2000.

 

                    

主谓一致考点分析

   1._____either he or I to leave for America?

       A. Is    B.Am    C.Are    D.Will

     析:由or,either…or, nor, neither…or, whether…or, not…but, not only…but also等连接的并列主语,其谓语动词的单复数要根据“就近原则”处理,因为空白处与he最近,故要选A。 

   2. No one has finished his homework,________?

     A.have they    B.haven’t they    C.has he    D.hasn’t he

     析:由No one可知空白处应选肯定式,故可排除B,D。又因为句子表述的意思是“没

         有一个人完成作业”,从人数上看是很多人没完成作业,故排除C项,而选A。

   3. There comes the bus,_______?

     A.doesn’t there    B.doesn’t it    C.does it    D.are there

     析:这是一个倒装句,主语是bus,谓语是comes, 所以答案应选B。

   4. He is a teacher but his wife is a doctor,_______?

     A.isn’t she    B.isn’t it    C.aren’t they    D.isn’t he

     析:此题问句前部分含but,重点是强调his wife is a doctor,故问句部分取决于此部分,因此,该题答案为A。

   5. They don’t think money is everything,_______?

     A.is it    B.isn’t it     C.will they    D.do they

     析:如果是“I/ We(don’t)think+宾从”则反意问句主语和谓语取决于宾语从句,但此句主句的主语不是I或we,而是They,这时反意问句部分的主语和谓语要取决     于主句的主、谓语,所以此题答案应选D。

   6. Each soldier and sailor_____given a rifle when the ship landed.

     A.were     B.was    C.are    D.is

     析:根据when the ship landed,可知应排除C,D.又因“each/every A and(each/every)B”结构的主语后面应跟单数谓语,所以答案为B。

   7.More than one person_____involved(卷入)in th case.

     A.is    B.are    C.has    D.have

     析:要表达“被卷入”,只能在A,B之中选一个,因more than one后应跟单名,单

         谓,所以答案为A。

  8.He is the only one of our customers who____this kind of article.

      A.like    B.likes    C.are fond of    D.loved

      析:从时态考虑可排除D。因“the/the only…of+复名”后的定语从句谓语应该 

          用单数形式,所以答案应是B。但此题若将the only 去掉,则答案为A。

 

 

情态动词、主谓一致专练

    1. The possibe____often proved impossible.

      A. have     B.has    C.are    D.will

    2.Neither you nor I am mad,____?

      A.are you    B.aren’t I    C.am I    D.are we

    3.You don’t think I am wrong,____?

      A.don’t you    B.do you    C.aren’t    D.am I

    4.It was Lin Song who broke the rules of the school,____?

      A.wasn’t it     B.didn’t he    C.was it    D.did he

    5.Bruce must have been in China for a long time,_____?

      A.hasn’t he     B.mustn’t he    C.Isn’t he    D.wasn’t he

    6.What the teacher has said is true,____?

      A.has he    B.hasn’t he    C.is it    D.isn’t it

    7.It must have snowed last night,____?

      A.isn’t it    B.haven’t he    C.mustn’t it    D.didn’t it

    8.It’s the first time that Xiao Qing has been to Tianjin,_____?

      A.has she    B.is it    C.hasn’t she    D.isn’t it

    9. The trousers_____fit for him.

       A.is    B.are    C.must    D.do

    10.He rather than Li Ying and Wang Ping____praised by the teacher.

       A.are    B.is    C.were    D.was

    11.Where is my pen?I_____it.    (NMET)

       A.should have lost    B.must have lost    C.would have lost    D.might lose

    12.A computer____think for itself ; it must be told what to do.(NMET)

       A.can’t    B.couldn’t    C.may not    D.might not

    13.We_____last night ,but we went to the concert instead. (NMET)

       A.must have studied    B.might study

       C.should have studied    D.would study

    14.I didn’t hear the phone ,I_____asleep. (NMET)

       A.must be    B.must have been    C.should be    D.should have been

    15.Be sure to write to us,_____? (NMET)

       A.will you    B.aren’t you    C.can you    D.mustn’t you

    16.I didn’t see her in the meeting-room this morning.She____at the meeting.

       (上海)

       A.mustn’t have spoken    B.shoudn’t have spoken

       C.needn’t have spoken     D.couldn’t have spoken

    17.There is plenty of time.She____. (NMET)

       A.must have hurried     B.needn’t have hurried

       C.must not hurry        D.couldn’t have hurried

    18.You don’t______to go there if you have no time.(上海)

       A.need    B.want    C.must    D.ought

    19.Sir,you_____be sitting in this waiting-room.It is for women and children

       only.(上海)

       A.oughtn’t to    B.can’t    C.won’t    D.don’t

    20.Tom ought not to_____me your secret ,but he meant no harm. (NMET)

       A.have told    B.tell    C.be telling    D.having told

    21.It’s nearly seven o’clock.Jack_____be here at any moment.(NMET)

       A.must    B.need    C.should    D.can

    22.Your coat is dirty,_____it for you?

       A.Am I washing    B.Will I wash    C.Am I going to wash    D.Shall I wash

    23.No one _____that to his face.

       A.dare say    B.dare to say    C.dares saying    D.dares said

    24.There used to be a church in the east of the town,_____?

       A.didn’t there    B.usen’t to there    C.used there    D.usedn’t to there

    25._____you be happy!

       A.Can    B.May    C.Must    D.Would

    26.Put on more clothes . You_____be feeling cold with only a shirt on.

       A.would    B.can    C.could    D.must

    27.-Why didn’t you answer when I called you?

       -I_____but you didn’t hear me.

       A.had to    B.couldn’t    C.didn’t answer    D.did

    28.I_____that time is more valuable than money.

       A.hardly need say    B.need hardly say

       C.need hardly to say    D.hardly need to say

    29.I____like to become a pianist some day.

       A.will    B.may     C.would    D.shall

    30 He_____there now,but I am not sure.

       A.maybe    B.may be    C.may have been    D.might have been

    31.-I didn’t see him yesterday.

       -Oh,but you______.

        A.ought to    B.should have    C.can’t have     D.may have    

    32.-Where were you this morning?I tried to call you.

       -I _____ to the library for a while.

        A.tried to go    B.should go    C.must go    D.had to go

    33.The flower is dead.I_____it more water.

        A.will give    B.must give    C.should have given    D.would have given

    34.-Does Tom want to go to the film?

       -Yes,but he says_____tonight.

       A.he’d not rather go    B.he’ll rather not go

       C.he won’t rather go    D.he’d rather not go

    35.-Did you walk home by yourself last night?

       -Yes ,I did. But I guess I_____.

        A.shouldn’t    B.needn’t    C.may not have    D.needn’t have

    36.-Do you speak Japanese?

       -No,I don’t , but I_____speak Chinese.

        A.ought    B.have to    C.do    D.must

    37.If you_____quiet ,I’ll tell you what happned

        A.be       B.will be    C.are    D.are to be

    38.-Look ,it_____be Li Ping.

       -No,it____be him.He’s gone abroad.

        A.may;mustn’t    B.must;may    C.must;can’t    D.can;may not

    39.Professor Wang,many students want to see you. _____they wait here or outside?

        A.Do    B.Are    C.Will    D.Shall

    40.I can’t find Mr Wang anywhere in the office building.Where____he have gone?

        A.may    B.can    C.must    D.Should

    41.Wherever you____,there’s no place like home.

        A.can go    B.must go    C.might go    D.may go

    42.-Don’t forget to post the letter for me.

       -I _____.

        A.won’t    B.will    C.don’t    D.can’t

    43.-Must I take a taxi?

       -No,you_____.You can walk from here.

        A.don’t    B.must not    C.don’t have to    D.had better not to

    44.The bus _____start;I don’t know what to do with it.

        A.can’t    B.won’t    C.shan’t    D.may not

    45.The car broke down on the way ,but we_____get out of the desert at last.

        A.might    B.would    C.were able to    D.could

    46.The rest of the lecture_____interesting.

        A.is    B.are    D.maybe    D.sound

    47.One and a half bananas____eaten by the little boy.

        A.were    B.was    C.have been    D.was to

    48.The cattle_____still grazing in the fields.

        A.was    B.keeps    C.were    D.won’t

    49.What caused the accident and who was responsible for it_____a mystery(谜)to

       us.

        A.remains    B.remain    C.is    D.look like

    50.All _____not gold that glitters.

        A.is    B.are    C.was    D.were

 

  

 

 

情态动词、主谓一致答案

    1-5   B D B A A    6-10    D D D B D     11-15   B B C B A

    16-20   D C A A A    21-25   C D A A B     26-30   D D D C B   

    31-35   B D C D D    36-40   C B C D B     41-45   D A C B C   

    46-50   A A C B A

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