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非谓语动词  

2009-09-26 20:46:18|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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l       动词不定式形式的各种含义

1.  各种形式的含义:

  to + 原形动词→表示主动            to be + 过去分词→表示被动

  to be + 现在分词→表示进行        to have + 过去分词→表示完成

  动词不定式的进行式表示动作发生时,不定式所表示的动作正在进行。

2.  主语+动词+     to  v.   表示同时

      have + P.P.  表示发生在主要动词之前

  seem, appear, be said, be reported, be supposed, be believed, be thought, be known等动词常用于此句型。

3.        anything

do    something + but (except) + 动词原形

           nothing

 在nothing but等前如果没有do(及do的各种形式)或but之前没有nothing时,后面应用to + 动词不定式。

l       不定式作宾语后置的问题

  主要有feel、find、think、consider、hope、make等词。

  通常构成主语+动词+ it(形式宾语)+宾补+ to do sth.(真正宾语)

l       动词不定式符号省略

1.  在一个句子中,当两个或两个以上的动词不定式并列在一起,由and、or等连词连接表示同一概念,或者他们之间的关系并列一致时,后面的不定式往往将to省略。I’d like to go and see a film.

【注意】You may ask him to go home or to stay here.

        It is better to stay than to go out.

        I don’t know what to do or what to say.

2.  不定式在复合宾语结构中作宾语补足语时,受某些动词的影响,往往省略to。如:feel, hear, see, watch, notice, listen to, make, have, let

但在被动结构中不省略。

3.  在一些固定搭配结构中,也常常省略。

   Had better, would rather… than …, do nothing but

4.  当第二个句子的句未有一个不定式,而这个不定式又是重复前面的句子出现过的不定式时,可用to代之,省去后面的动词。

---- Mary wanted to use your bike.    ---- But I asked her not to (use it).

【注意】to与want、hope、wish、expect、like、hate、try、have(必须)、ought、need、used to(习惯)、be able 、be going(将要)等连用,形成不定式,以避免重复。

【注意】倘若承前省略的不定式内容是作助动词用的have或be的任何形式时,后要保留原形be或have,或have been。

e.g. He is not what he used to be.

   She has succeeded in the final examination, and in fact, she ought to have.

   ---- Didn’t he tell you to attend the meeting?    ---- No, I ought to have been.

l       不定式作状语的结构及一些特殊的表达式

1.  注意下列不定式的结构和用法。

 1)so as to + v. = in order to + v.

 2)so as to + v. / in order to + v. = so that / in order that + S. + might / may + v.

 3)so as to do sth.的否定形式:so as not to do sth.

2.  … adj. + enough + to do sth.

3.  too … to …

too + adj. / adv. + for sb. to do sth. = so … that + S. + can / could + not do sth.

【注意】We are never too old to learn.我们活到老,学到老。

        I am only pleased to help you.我非常愿意帮助你。

     He is too excited not to tell you about that.他非常激动,不会不告诉你那件事。

        He is too wise not to see that.他很聪明,不会不明白那事。

4.  only to do(不料却……),作结果状语,表示消极的没有预料到的结果,使目的不能实现。

e.g. They left a rock only to drop it on their feet.他们搬起石头砸到了自己的脚上。

【注意】just to do sth.作目的状语,just起语气作用,译为“专门的,只,仅仅”。

        only doing sth.也作结果状语,含有“with the result of(结果)”的意思。only修饰后面的v-ing形式以加强语气,此结构的意思是“结果只是”,其前往往用逗号。

e.g. He died, only leaving nothing but debts.

     We went to town yesterday just to buy clothes.

l       动词不定式的主动形式有时含有被动的意义

1.  在there be句型中。There is a lot of work to do.

2.  名词(代词)+be+形容词+to do sth.

如:difficult, hard, impossible, nice, pleasant, easy

3.  在too … to …句型中。

【注意】Could I have something to drink?

        The most important thing to do is to lock the door when one leaves the house.

        The house is to let.

        I am to blame since I’ve forgotten to tell them the exact place.

l       不定式的完成体的运用

主语+动词(希望)+   to v. 表示未来

                  to have + P.P. 表示过去原本希望,但未实现

动词不定式的完成体主要体现他所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前,但在plan、hope、expect、should (would) like、mean、want、wish、promise、desire等动词之后,则表示没有实现的行为。

e.g. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.    He planned to have gone abroad.

【注意】had + plan (hope, expect, mean, want, wish, promise, desire) +ed表示过去未曾实现的想法、希望或打算,此用法相当于一般过去时+不定式的完成体。

e.g. We had hoped to be able to come and see you.

【归纳】不定式完成体的用法:

1.  主语+推断动词 + to do    表同时

                 + to have + 过去分词    表发生在主要动词之前

    seem, appear, be said, be supposed, be believed, be thought, be known, be reported等动词常用于上述句型.

2.  常见的可接不定式完成体的形容词有glad, happy, sad, disappointed, satisfied, sorry, surprised等。

【比较】不定式的一般式和完成式的区别:

e.g. I’m happy to have seen you.     I’m happy to see you.

   I’m sorry to keep you waiting for a minute.

   I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for a long time.

3.  be+不定式完成时态表示该做或想做但未做的动作。

e.g. You were to have arrived there early that day.

     你们早该到那儿. (但你们晚了)

l       后接动词的v-ing动词归纳

admit, advise, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, excuse, enjoy, escape, finish, give up, imagine, keep (on), mind, mean, permit, put off, practise, suggest, be worth, object to, insist on, set about, stop, feel like, risk, miss, prevent, can’t help, allow

【注意】advise, permit, allow和forbid等词后面,可直接跟动词作宾语,也可跟动词不定式作补语的复合宾语。

【注意】常跟不定式的动词:(略)

       know和wonder后必须用连接代词或连接副词+不定式作宾语。

l       一些常考的动词后跟不定式或动词v-ing的意思相似与不同

1.  后接不定式或v-ing后接意思基本相同的动词归纳:

like, love, hate, begin, start, continue, prefer, attempt, propose(打算,建议)         

【辨析】1)like / love / hate to do sth.    ( doing sth. )

        2)propose to do sth.(打算/计划做)  propose doing sth.(提出/打算)

        3)prefer doing to doing       prefer to do rather than do

        4)feel like doing        would like to do

        5)have trouble / difficulty in doing      take trouble to do

2.  意思明显不同的动词有remember, forget, regret, mean, try, stop, go on, want, can’t help, be afraid, be used to do / doing等。

【注意】

1)        在allow,advise,forbid,permit等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式。

2)        动词need,require,want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用动名词,或不定式的被动时,这时,动名词的主动形式表示被动。

(注意be worth doing / be worthy to be done / be worthy of being done结构)

3)        在love,hate,prefer等动词后用动名词或不定式无多大区别,但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。

4)        在should (would) like / love等后须用不定式。

5)        start,begin,continue在书面语中多接动名词,在口语中后多接不定式。

l       常跟动词v-ing的句型

1.  在There is no need (use, harm) + in …句型中必须用动词v-ing(做某事没有用)。

2.  It is no use + v-ing形式。

e.g. It is no use making an excuse for this. = It is no good making an excuse for this.

   = It is of no use to make an excuse for this. (making an excuse for this.)

   = It is useless to make an excuse for this.

3.  cannot help + v-ing形式(情不自禁……)。

4.  have no choice but + to do (只能……其他别无选择)

【特殊】cannot but +动词原形(不禁,不得不)

e.g. I cannot but think so. 我不得不这样想。

l       to是介词还是不定式符号

由于介词to和不定式的符号相同,所以有时会把介词to误认为不定式符号而造成错误。在以下短语中,to为介词,用作介词的宾语,后接动词v-ing形式。常见的有:

 

 

 

 

come to(到达、苏醒、终于明白), agree to, object to, stick to, amount to(共达到), apply to(申请), attend to(处理), belong to, see to(照料、处理), lead to, reply to, attribute to(归因于), be used to, look forward to, take to(喜欢), add to, devote to, be sentenced to, get to(开始), prefer …to…, refer to(参考)

l       注意动词的习惯用法

have no business + v-ing(无权做……)

 feel like + v-ing(想)

 make a point of + v-ing(认为……是必要的)

 on + v-ing = as soon as …(一……就……)

 have / has / form a habit of doing sth.(有/养成干……的习惯)

e.g. On hearing the news, I changed my mind. = At the news, I changed my mind.

   = As soon as I heard the news, I changed my mind.

l       注意动词v-ing的其它常考易错的形式

 1.have difficulty / trouble / problem + v-ing (做某事有困难)

 2.have fun with + v-ing(玩得开心)

 3.have the pleasure of + v-ing (乐意做某事)

 4.have a good time in + v-ing   /  have a hard time + v-ing

 5.There is no need (use, harm) in + v-ing(做某事没有必要(没用、没害))

 6.It is no use doing sth.(做……无用)

 7.cannot help + v-ing

l       分词的逻辑主语(即独立主格结构)

e.g. It being Sunday, we have no school.

   Spring having come, it is getting warmer and warmer.

   Flags flying, the soldiers marched in the street.

   The last bus having gone, we had to walk home.

   Weather permitting, we’ll stay longer.

l       非谓语动词作宾补或主补

不定式、现在分词和过去分词都可以作宾补或主补,但用法和表示的意义不同。试比较:

 

 

 

 

宾语与宾补的逻辑关系

宾补的动作情况

非谓语动词

例句编号

主谓

正在进行

现在分词

1

宾动(被动)

正在进行

现在分词被动式

2

主谓

动作全过程

不定式

3

宾动(被动)

动作已完成或动作全过程

过去分词

4

主谓

已完成了状态

不及物动词的过去分词

5

e.g. 1. They are watching the children playing football.

   2. I saw the house being built.

   3. I heard him sing the song in English.

   4. Because of my poor English, I am afraid I can’t make myself understood.

   5. We found the village greatly changed.

l       v-ing形式的复合结构

1.  形式:

物主代词(名词所有格)+动名词(可用于作主语和宾语)

人称代词宾格(名词普通格)+动名词(只限于作宾语)

e.g. Your failing the exam will disappoint your parents.

I’m sure of the news being true.

2.  与独立主格结构的比较:

独立主格结由名词或代词+分词(不定式、名词、代词、形容词、副词、介词

短语)构成。独立主格结构不是句子,没有主语和谓语,但有名词或代词代表的逻辑上的主语。但是其主语与主句中的主语不是指同一个人或同一事物。

独立主格结构只能充当状语。

  1)      原因:It being Sunday, the library doesn’t open.

  2)      时间:The signal given, the bus started.

  3)      伴随情况:The boy followed that man here, and climbed in, sword in hand.

  4)      条件:Weather permitting, we’ll visit the Great Wall.

2:

 

非谓语动词是指分词(包括现在分词和过去分词)、不定式、动名词等三种形式,即:

 doing  , done ,  to do  ,  doing 。当然它们有各自不同的变化形式,如:

  现在分词  doing : 有being done(被动式) ; having done (完成式); having been do

ne (完成被动式)

   不定式    to do : 有to be done (被动式); to have done (完成式); to be doing(进行式)

   动名词    doing : 有having done(完成式); being done(被动式) ;

   非谓语动词的特点: 三种非谓语动词都具有动词的特征,虽然它们没有人称和数的变化,但是它们都能带自己的状语或有时跟宾语。它们都有各自的特征:分词具有形容词和副词的特征;动名词具有名词的特征;不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征。具体来讲:分词在句子中可以做定语、表语、状语或补足语等;动名词在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语等;不定式在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语、补足语或状语。

   下面分别对三种非谓语动词进行讲解:

一.             动词不定式

先看几个例句,判断不定式在句中的成分。

1.To learn a foreign language is difficult .

2. His wish is to be a driver .

3.Tom wanted to have a cup of beer .

4.The teacher told us to do morning exercises .

5.I have nothing to say .

6.They went to see their aunt .

7.It’s easy to see their aunt.

8.I don’t know what to do next .

9.I heard them make a noise .

说明:1.动词不定式作主语, 2.动词不定式作表语,3.动词不定式作宾语,4.动词不定式作宾语补足语,5.动词不定式作定语,6.动词不定式作目的状语,7.动词不定式作真正主语,it 代替动词不定式,作形式主语。8.带有连接代词的动词不定式作宾语,9.不带to 的动词不定式作宾语补足语。

  掌握动词不定式应注意的几个问题:

1. “to” 是不定式符号还是介词,下列短语中的to 都是介词。

     agree to  object to  close to  , come to  , lead to  , refer to  ,

equal to , familiar to , point to  , thank to , devote to  , next to , belong to , be used to , look forward to

2. 带to 还是不带to

  I have no choice but to give in

  I cannot do anything but give in

  I  saw him enter the classroom .

  ( 但是: He was seen to enter the classroom .)

 3. 动词不定式逻辑主语是由for 作为标记的。但是有时用of .

  It’s necessary for you to study hard .

  It’s foolish of him to do it .

   与of 连用的形容词有:

 good, kind , nice , wise ,clever , foolish , right , wrong , careful , careless , polite , possible

 4.后接不定式作宾语的动词有:

 want , hope , wish , like  , begin , try  , need , forget , agree  , know , promise , teach , refuse , help , arrange  , dare , decide , determine , fail , manage , offer , prepare , continue , ask  , mean , choose , expect   etc.

需要宾语补足语的动词不能用动词不定式直接做介词的宾语,而要用it做形式宾语。例如:通常不说We think to obey the laws is important . 而说We think it important to obey the laws .

 5.不定式的省略。下列短语中,如果意义明确,常常省略到to 。

want to , wish to ,hope to , like to , hate to , plan to , try to  , love to , have  to , o

ught to , need to  , used to  , be able to

 6.不定式作定语,应注意两种关系:

1)动宾关系:

 He has a lot of meeting to attend .

 Please lend me something to write with .

 He is looking for a room to live

 He is looking for a room to live in .

 He has no money and no place

to live ( in ) .

I think the best way to travel ( by ) is on foot .

There is no time to think ( about ) .

2)主谓关系:

 She is always the last ( person) to speak at the meeting .

----I’m going to the post office , for I have a letter to  post . ( 逻辑主语是I )

-------Thank you. But I have no letters to be posted now         ( 逻辑主语不是I )

 7.不定式作状语,可以有以下几种意义:

  1) 原因

   He is lucky to get here on time .

   这种结构中常用的形容词有:

  happy , glad , delighted , pleased , sorry , eager , anxious . lucky , fortunate , proud , angry  surprised  , frightened  , disappointed , ready , clever , foolish , worthy

   2)  目的

    He came to help me with my maths .

   3)  结果

 I hurried to get there only to find him out .

 The book is too hard for the boy to read .

 He is old enough to go to school .

 8 . 不定式作补足语

  I saw him  play in the street just now .

 能跟不带to 的不定式作补足语的动词有:

    see , feel , hear , listen to , look at , watch , let , have  make, observe, notice

 注: 当这些词为被动式时,不定式要带to , 如:

   He  was seen to play  in the street just now.

二.动名词

Learning English is very  difficult .

学英语非常困难。

His job is driving a bus .

他的工作是开车。

I enjoy dancing .

我喜欢跳舞。

I have got used to living in the country .

我已经习惯了住农村。

Take some sleeping tablets , and you will soon fall asleep .

吃点安眠药,你很快就会入睡。

注意以下几种结构:

1.There’s no telling what will happen .

=It’s  impossible to tell what will happen .

= No one can tell what will happen .

2.It’s no use talking with him .

It’s no good speaking to them like that .

3.There’s some difficulty ( in ) doing …

在此句型中,difficulty 可以由以下单词替换:

   trouble , problem  , fun  , pleasure  , a good time  , a hard time

注意以下几个问题:

 1.下列动词后跟不定式与跟动名词作宾语意义有区别,

 forget to do … 忘记要做某事

 forget doing…  忘记做了某事

 remember to do…记住要做某事

 remember doing …记着做了某事

 mean to do …   有意要做某事

mean doing …     意味着做了某事

 regret to do … 对要做的事表示后悔

regret  doing … 对做过去的事后悔

can’t help to do…不能帮助做某事

can’t help doing … 情不自禁做某事

try to do …     尽力去做某事

try doing         试着做某事

learn to do …   学着去做某事

learn doing …    学会做某事

stop to do …     停下来去做(另一件事)

stop doing …     停止做某事

go on to do …     接着做(另外一件事)

go on doing …     继续做某事

used to do …    过去做某事

be used to doing … 习惯做某事

2.动名词作定语与现在分词作定语意义有区别

动名词作定语表达    n+ for doing  的含义

现在分词作定语表达   n+which(who) be doing的含义

如:a sleeping car  = a car for sleeping

a running horse  = a horse which is running

前者是动名词 , 后者是现在分词

又如: drinking water  , walking stick  running water , sleeping boy

 3. 动名词的逻辑主语:

动名词的逻辑主语为代词或名词的所有格形式。

例如:His coming made us very happy .

 4.动名词的语态和时态

 5. 动名词主动形式表被动的情况:

   need doing   , want doing   , require doing

例如:  This room needs painting . 这个房间需要粉刷。

 6.只能跟动名词作宾语的动词:

  admit , avoid , advise , consider , delay , deny , enjoy  , escape , excuse , fancy , finish , complete , forbid , imagine , mind , miss , permit . practise , require ,  suggest , risk , keep, take to , look forward to , get down to , feel like , can’t help , can’t stand , be used to ,insist on , succeed in , set about, give up , include ,

 

三. 分词

 1 The  story is interesting . I’m interested in it .

  这个故事有兴趣,我对这个故事感兴趣。

 2 . This is a moving film .

     这是一部动人的电影。

 3. The secretary worked late into the night , preparing a long speech for the president .

    秘书工作到深夜,为主席准备一篇长篇演讲稿。

 4. Given more time , I’ll do it well .

   如果给我多一点时间,我会做的更好。

When he passed the back of the street , he saw the thief stealing some money from the bank .

当他后街时,看到小偷正从银行偷钱。

  应注意的几个问题:

 1.现在分词与过去分词的区别

 Do you know the woman talking to Tom ?

 = Do you know the woman who is talking to Tom ?

 The soldier wounded in the war has become a doctor.

= The soldier who was wounded in the war has become a doctor.

China is a developing country  and America is a developed country.

 2.分词作表语

 The news sounds encouraging .

 They got very excited .

 1)现在分词与过去分词作表语的区别:

 The news is  interesting .

  He is interested in the news .

doing 作表语,主语与表语是主谓关系  ;done 作表语,主语与表语是动宾关系。

 2)表语与被动式的区别:

The blackboard was broken by Xiao Ming .(强调动作)

The blackboard is broken . You’d better have it repaired.(强调状态)

 3)常作表语的过去分词:

 amused , injured , covered , known , dressed  , lost  , broken , gone , delighted, excited  , pleased , satisfied , married , worried , surprised , interested , burnt , shut , crowded , wounded , drank  , done

 3.现在分词、动名词 现在进行时的区别

The situation in our country is encouraging . (表语)

The situation in our country is encouraging the people . ( 现在进行时)

My job is looking after the little baby . (动名词)

能回答how-question 的是现在分词,能回答what-question 的动名词,即不能回答how-question 也不能回答what-question 的是现在进行时。

 例如: How is the situation in our country ? It is encouraging .

        What is your job ?      My job is looking after the little baby .

 4.注意的四种结构:

 have something to do  有某事要做

 have something done   使某事被做

 have somebody do something 使某人做某事

 have something doing   让某事一直做着

5. 需要跟反身代词作宾语的动词:

seat , prepare , hide , dress

如:I seated myself on the chair .

I was seated on the chair .

 6.分词做状语与不定式的区别:

 分词做状语表示时间、原因、让步、 条件、方式、伴随等;而不定式表示目的和结果。

 Having  finished the homework , I went home . ( 时间)

 Being a Party member , I should work hard .    (原因)

 Given more time ,I can do my work better .       ( 条件 )

 He ran out of the classroom ,shouting at the  boy. ( 伴随)

 To get more knowledge , we must work harder and harder . ( 目的 )

 He is old enough to join the army .  ( 结果)

 7.分词、动名词和不定式作定语的区别

  a running horse  现在分词 = a horse that is running

  a fallen leaf    过去分词 = a leaf that has already fallen

  a walking stick  动名词   = a stick for walking

  something to do  不定式   = something that I should do

 8.不定式被动式、分词的被动式和过去分词的区别:

I have a problem to be discussed  at the meeting .  ( 将来)

The building being built on the river is the Science Museum . (正在进行)

 The building completed three years ago is now in bad conditions . ( 过去)

 9.分词做状语需要注意的一个问题:

  分词与句子主语的逻辑关系

  Seeing from the hill , the city looks beautiful .( 错误 )

  Seen from the hill , the city looks beautiful .  ( 正确)

  Seeing 与the city 不是主谓关系;seen 与city 是动宾关系

练习

I .单项选择

1.Most of the people _____ to the party were famous scientists.

A. invited   B. to invite  C. being invited  D. inviting

2. ______ many times, but he still  couldn’t understand it .

 A. Having  being told   B. Though had been told   C. He was told

D. Having told

3. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _____ on a big rock by the side of the path .

A.to have rested  B. testing   C. to rest   D. rest 

4. The next morning she found the man ______ in bed , dead .

 A. lying   B. lie  C. lay   D. laying

5. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier , _______ it more difficult .

A. to make  B. not to make   C. not making  D. to not make

6 . The Olympic Games , _____ in 776 B.C., did not include women plays until 1912 .

A.first playing  B.to be first played  C. first played  D. to be first playing

7 . ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting .

---- Well , now I regret ____________that  .

A.  to do   B. to be doing  C. to have done   D. having done

8 . The visiting Minister expressed his satisfaction with talks , _______ that he had enjoyed his stay here .

A. having added  B. to add  C. adding   D. added 

9 . _______ a reply , he decided to write again .

A. Not receiving   B. Receiving not   C. Not having received   D. Having not received

10.The speaker raised his voice, but he still couldn’t make himself ________ .

A. hear   B. to hear   C. hearing   D. heard

Robert is said ___ abroad , but I don’t know what country be studied in .

to have studied  B. to study  C. to be studying  D. to have been studying

II . 用动词的正确形式填空

1. Little Tom should love ________ ( take ) to the theatre this evening .

2. Paul doesn’t have to be made _______ ( learn ) . He always works hard .

3. The computer centre , ______ ( open )last year  , is very popular among the students in this school .

4. Go on _____( do ) the other exercise after you have finished this one .

5. How about two of us ______ ( take ) a walk down the garden .

答案:

I

1.A 2.C 3.C 4.A 5.B 6.C 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.D

II

1.to be taken ; 2.to learn ; 3.opened ;4.to do ; 5.taking  

 

通过对历年高考英语非谓语动词考题的归纳和比较可以看出,每年差不多有三分之二的非谓语动词考题可能涉及以下“关系”:主动与被动关系以及动作的先后关系。如果同学们在做题时能充分注意这两大“关系”,并据此进行分组排除,然后结合其他非谓语动词的相关知识,攻克非谓语动词这一难点也就变得很容易了。

一、利用主动和被动关系

这里说的主动与被动关系,指的是非谓语动词所表示的动作与其逻辑主语之间是主动关系还是被动关系。若是主动关系,非谓语动词就用主动式;若是被动关系,非谓语动词就用被动式。下面分三类举例说明:

1. 涉及不定式的主动与被动式

(1) I feel greatly honored _________ into their society. (北京卷)

A. to welcome B. welcoming     C. to be welcomed       D. welcomed

答案为C。be (feel) honored后习惯上接不定式,故可排除B和D;又因为I与welcome之间为被动关系,故用不定式的被动式。

(2) The message is very important, so it is supposed _________ as soon as possible. (陕西卷)

A. to be sent             B. to send                   C. being sent             D. sending 

答案为A。be supposed后习惯上不接动名词,而接不定式,其意为“应该做某事”,故可排除C和D;又因为“消息”与“传达”之间为被动关系,故用被动式。

2. 涉及动名词的主动与被动式

At the beginning of class, the noise of desks _________ could be heard outside the classroom. (全国II)

A. opened and closed                                    B. to be opened and closed

C. being opened and closed                             D. to open and close

答案为C。由于desks与open和close的关系是被动关系,故要用被动式,可排除D;又因为用于介词of后作宾语,所以要用动名词,不用不定式或过去分词,故可排除A和D,所以答案选C。 

3. 涉及现在分词的主动与被动式

_________ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she’d like that little doll on her bed. (北京卷)

 

A. Seeing                     B. To see                   C. See            D. Seen

答案为A。首先要排除B和C,因为B为不定式,它用于句首时,通常是表示目的,在此不合句意;而C为动词原形,选它会构成祈使句,一是句意不通,二是这样会导致前后两句之间没有连词而出错。在剩下的A和D之间,只能选seeing,不能选seen,因为句子主语是 I与see之间为主动关系,而非被动关系。

【注意】由于过去分词本身可以表示被动,所以过去分词不用被动式,同时它也没有被动式。请看几道相关的考题: 

(1) The trees _________ in the storm have been moved off the road. (湖南卷)

A. being blown down     B. blown down           C. blowing down             D. to blow down

答案为B。由于trees与blow down之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词。blown down in the storm在此用作定语,修饰the trees,相当于定语从句which were blown down in the storm。

(2) To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English _________ as much as we can. (江苏卷)

A. speak                     B. speaking                  C. spoken                       D. to speak

答案为C。由于English与speak之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词。

(3) We finished the run in less than half the time _________. (江西卷)

A. allowing                   B. to allow                   C. allowed                   D. allows

答案为C。由于time与allow之间为被动关系,故要用过去分词。in the time allowed意为“在规定的时间内”。

二、利用动作的先后关系

动作的先后关系在选项中的直接体现为一般式还是完成式。一般说来,当非谓语动词所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前时,非谓语动词原则上要用完成式。

1. 涉及不定式的动作先后关系

Leonardo da Vinci(1452-1519) _________ birds kept in cages in order to have the pleasure of setting them free. (重庆卷)

A. is said to be buying                                        B. is said to have bought

C. had said to buy                                              D. has said to have bought

答案为B。“be said+不定式”是英语中一个很有用的结构,其意为“据说”。其中的不定式是用一般式还是完成式,取决于该不定式所表示的动作是发生在谓语动作之前还是之后。根据句意可知,buy birds肯定发生在过去,或者说发生在is said之前,所以其中的不定式要用完成式,故答案选B。又如:Mr. Brown is said to have died of liver cancer. 据说布朗先生死于肝癌。

2. 涉及动名词的动作先后关系

I hear they’ve promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention _________ when we talked on the phone. (江西卷)

A. to promote                                                  B. having been promoted

C. having promoted                                          D. to be promoted

答案为B。由于动词mention后接动词作宾语时,习惯上要用动名词,不用不定式,故可排除A和D;再根据句意可知,句中的he与promote之间为被动关系,故要用被动式,同时,由于“被提拔”与“提到”之间有明显的先后关系,即“被提拔”在先,“提到”在后,故用动名词的完成被动式,即答案选B。

3. 涉及现在分词的动作先后关系

(1) _________ around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. (陕西卷

A. Having shown                                    B. To be shown    

C. Having been shown                             D. To show

答案为C。根据句意可知,“我们”与“带去参观”之间为被动关系,故应用非谓语动词的被动式,可排除A和D;再根据句中的then可知,前后动作有明显的先后关系,故先发生的动作要用完成式,故选C。

(2) _________ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. (重庆卷)

A. Fail                      B. Failed                     C. To fail                     D. Having failed

答案为D。根据语境分析,“用电话联系”与“发电子邮件”两个动作之间有明显的先后关系,故先发生的动作要用完成式。 

【注意】由于过去分词本身可以表示完成,所以过去分词不用完成式,同时它也没有完成式。请看一道相关的高考题:

It is one of the funniest things _________ on the Internet so far this year. (浙江卷) 

A. finding                  B. being found             C. to find                    D. found

 答案为D。由于things与find之间为被动关系,故可排除A和C。根据句意,应该是这件有趣的事先被人们发现,后才被人们谈论,但由于过去分词没有完成式,故用一般式表示完成,故选found。

 

 

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