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定语从句  

2009-09-26 20:50:45|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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l       怎样选择关系代词或关系副词

引导定语从句的词有关系代词that、which、who、whom、whose、as和关系副词when、where、why。依据先行词在从句中所作的成分而决定。如作主语、宾语、表语或定语,选关系代词,如作状语,择选关系副词。

1.  which与that。

1)that一般不用于非限制性定语从句。

2)当先行词是不定代词时(all、something、everything、little、much等)。

3)当先行词被形容词最高级或first、last、next等修饰时。

4)当先行词被the very、the same、the only修饰时。

5)当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。e.g. China is not the country (that) it was.

6)避免重复时。   e.g. Which is the car that overtook(超车) us yesterday?

但在下列情况下,只能用which,不能用that:

1)      在介词后。

2)      非限制性定语从句中。

3)      代替前面整个句子的意思。

e.g. Xiao Ming lost his bag, which made his mother very angry.

2.  that与who。

1)      that一般不用于非限制定语从句中。

2)      当先行词被“same”修饰时。

e.g. She is the same teacher that was praised the other day.

3)      当先行词是who。  e.g. Who that breaks the laws will be punished.

4)      当先行词一个指人,另一个指物时。

5)      当先行词在定语从句中作表语时。  e.g. Tom is not the boy (that) he was.

   但当先行词是人称代词时,关系代词只能who用不能用that。

e.g. You, who know me, should trust me.  你是知道我的,应该相信我。

3.  whom(宾格),在从句中作宾语。

4.  whose(所有格),在从句中作定语,既可修饰人,也可修饰物。

e.g. I live in a room whose window faces south.

   I live in a room, the window of which faces south.

5.  关系词与连词as。

1)  用于the same … as …、such … as …、so … as …、as … as …等句型中,as引导的定语从句常采用省略形式。

e.g. I’d like to use the same tool as we used yesterday.

   He lifted so heavy a stone as no one else can lift.

   You may take as many magazines as you want.

   在“the same …”后也可以用that引导定语从句,但意义有所不同。

   that引出的从句,指的是与先行词同一的事物,而as引导的从句是与先行词相似的同类事物。

【比较】I’d like to use the same tool that we used yesterday.(指昨天用过的那把)

   I’d like to use the same tool as we used yesterday.(指与昨天用过的那把相同)

2)  as还可以修饰一个主句。这时与which引导的从句不同之处在于:

   as引导的从句可置于主句前,也可置于主句后,而which引导的从句只能置于主句后。which连接的主从句,它们之间含有因果关系。

   as引导的定语从句常向主句提供一种理由或依据,它引导的从句实际上已成为一种固定搭配。

 

 

as everybody can see, as can be seen, as is known to all, as you know, as has been said before, as is often said, as was usual, as I expected, as may be imagined, as is expected, as is reported, as is announced

6.  when修饰表示时间的名词(time, hour, month, year等)。

e.g. The first time (that) I came to Beijing was in 1989.

7.  where修饰表示地点的名词。

     总之,在考虑选用定语从句的关系代时,除考虑其修饰的是什么词外,还必须考虑在从句中的成分,尤其是在修饰表示时间或地点的名词时。

8.  why表示原因。  e.g. Do you know the reason why he is absent today?

9.  下列几种情况下,关系代词可以省略。

1)  当关系代词在定语从句中作宾语时常可省略。

2)  关系代词在从句中作表语时有时可以省略。

3)  定语从句中的谓语是there be时,作主语的关系代词常可以省略。

e.g. This is the fastest train (that) there is to Beijing.  这时去北京最快的火车。

l       先行词是时间或地点时

【例1】  I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China.   (NMET97)

    先行词为地点名词时,从句中的关系词可能是where也可能是that或which,这取决于关系词在从句中担当的成分。如果关系词在从句中作主语、宾语,只能用关系代词that或which;如果关系词在从句中作表语、状语则用关系副词where。此处引导词在从句中作主语,代指Beijing,只能用关系代词that或which。

【例2】  I also enjoyed the evenings when we spent together.   (NMET95)

先行词为时间名词时,从句中的关系词可能是when也可能是that或which,这取决于关系词在从句中担当的成分。如果关系词在从句中作主语、宾语,只能用关系代词that或which;如果关系词在从句中作表语、状语则用关系副词when。此处引导词在从句中作spend的宾语,代指evenings,只能用关系代词that或which。

 

 

 

 

一、考点聚焦

    1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语

2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后

Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please.

3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词

(1)先行词一般是名词和不定代词,如:some-, any-, every-和no与-boy, -thing的合成词;或all、none、any、some、that、those等代词。数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作先行词。

(2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。必须注意两点:

①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。

This is the place which is worth visiting.

②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分,其意思就是先行词的意义,所以在从句中不能重复其意。

There are many places we can visit(them)in China.

4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词

关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose, as。

关系副词:when, where, why。that偶尔也作关系副词。

5、确定关系词的步骤

(1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。

(2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。

6、在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用that而不用which

(1)先行词被①形容词最高级 ②序数词 ③数词几种词修饰或被 ④only、any、few、little、no、all、one of等修饰时。

(2)先行词为all、much、little、none、few、one、something、anything等不定代词时。

(3)先行词中既有人又有物时。

He was looking pleasantly at te children and parcels that filled his bus.

(4)先行词在主句中作表语关系词在从句中作表语时。

The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago.

(5)当主句中含有疑问词which时。

Which are the books that you bought for me ?

7、宜用which而不用that的情况

(1)在非限制性定语从句中

(2)在关系词前有介词时

(3)当先行词本身是that时

(4)当关系词离先行词较远时

8、关系词who与that指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词

(1)当主句是there be句型时,关系词用who。

(2)先行词是为anyone、those、someone、everyone、one等词时,关系词用who。

(3)当主句是who作疑问词时,关系词用that。

Who is that girl that is standing by the window?

(4)whom在从句中只作宾语,可被who取代。

9、whose作关系词既指人又指物,在从句中作定语。如:

Do you know Mr.Smith whose story is very moving ?

There is a room, whose window faces the river.

There is a room, the window of which faces the river.

10、关系代词as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。

(1)先行词被such和the same修饰,或句型as many(much)中,从句都用as 引导。

Such books as you bought are useful.

The school is just the same as it was 10 years age.

注意:区别①such … that … 引导的结果状语从句。They are such

lovely children that we love them much.②the same … that … 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now.

(2)无先行词的定语从句用as和which引导。

区别:①意义上:as 含有“这点正如……一样”。②位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可在另处。

He didn’t pass the exam, as we had expected.

There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out.

As is known, the earth is round, not flat.

11、关系副词when与where、why、that

when 指时间 = in / at / on / during which

where指地点 = in / at / from / which

why指原因 = for which

当先行词为way、day、reason、time时,可用that作关系副词。(非正式场合)

I don’t like the way that / in which / he talks.

当time作先行词时,关系词可以省掉。

This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French.

12、必须注意的问题

(1)关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。

(2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。

①定语从句中关系词作从句成分,复合句。

②强调it无意义,that / who不是引导词。

③强调it is / was和that / who后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。

It is the museum that / which we visited last year.(定语从句)

It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句)

(3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。

①定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。

②同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that不能充当任何成分,不可省。

Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语)

We expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语)

(4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。

①关系词作宾语,前无介词时。

②关系词作表语。

(5)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。

(6)关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是which和whom。

(7)几个特殊的定语从句句型:

①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks

in the match.(句中one为先行词)

He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中students为先行词)

②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday?

Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday ?

③He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening.

④It may rain, in which case the match will be put off.

'二、精典名题导解

选择填空

1. The film brought the hours back to me _________ I was taken good care of in that faraway village.(NMET  2001)

A.until          B.that          C.when           D.where

解析:答案为C。本题考查分隔定语从句的关系词的选择。作好本题的关键是要能辨认出该定语从句的先行词the hours和关系词被介词短语to me所分隔。定语从句的先行词是表时间的名词hours, 并且关系词在从句中用作状语,故应选择表示时间的关系副词when。

2. ___________ is known to everybody, the noon travels around the earth once every month.(NMET  2001)

A.It            B.As            C.That           D.What

解析:答案为B。本题考查as引导的非限制定语从句。as作“正如……”解时,引导的非限制性定语从句来修饰整个句子。当as在从句中作主语时,常用于下列短语:as is known、as is said、as is reported、as is announced等。要注意掌握作关系代词引导定语从句的用法。

3. After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ___________ he grew up as a child.(NMET  1996)

A.which         B.where         C.that            D.when

       解析:答案为B。本题考查限制性定语从句中关系词的选择。定语从句的先行词是表示地点的名词短语the small town, 且关系词不作定语从句中的主语和宾语而作地点状语,因此定语从句必须用关系副词where引导。要注意分清先行词在从句中充当的成分,然后选择适当的关系词。

  

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