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状语从句  

2009-09-26 20:55:34|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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l       时间状语从句

1.  as,while,when表时间的异同

   when既可表示“一段时间”(与持续性动词连用),又可表示“时间点”(与瞬间动词连用);while只表示“一段时间”,强调主句谓语动词的动作发生在while的同时或在while过程中。while从句中只与持续性动词连用;as用法与when相似。但侧重主句动作发生的同时性。

 注意:when可作并列连词,以为“这(那)时”,强调动作的突然性;while可表示对比转折,有“然而”之意,as有时可译为“随着”,“一边……,一边……”。

2.  before“在……之前,”“过了……才”,“没……就”的意思。它引导的从句本身已含有否定的意味,所以从句中的谓语动词一般不用否定形式,谓语动词须用肯定式。另外,还需要注意before从句的汉意。

3.  1)since从句的动词不同,起算的时间也不同。since +非延续性动词的过去时,从该动作发生的时间算起;since +延续性动词的过去时,从该动词的结束时间算起。

  试比较:He has studied hard since he entered college.(从他上学以来)

          We haven’t seen each other since I worked in the factory.

(从我不在工厂以来)

          He has been out since he was ill.(自从病好了,他一直不在家。)

     2)since从句中的时态

e.g. I haven’t seen him since he left out school.

   I met an old friend yesterday. I hadn’t seen him since he left our school.

   They asked me to have a drink with them. I said that it was at least ten years since I had enjoyed a good drink.

4.  till与until句型:二者多数情况下可互用,但在句首时不可用till;在强调句型中及not until放在句首时,一般不可用till。

 注意:till / until用于肯定句时,须和持续性动词连用,表示“直到……为止”;用于否定句时,和非延续性动词连用,表示“直到……才”。

 另外,引导时间状语从句的连词还有each time,by the time,as soon as,the moment,no sooner … than …,… hardly … when …, 后两个引导的从句表示“刚……就……”,主句中的动词一般用过去完成时,从句用过去时,而且主句一般倒装,把助动词had提到前面。

l       原因状语从句

1.  because, as, since

  because着重说明原因和理由,语气最强,as只能说明一般的因果关系,可放在句首,也可放在句尾。

  since表示关系上的自然结果,特别是已经清楚,甚至不言而喻的事情,意思是“既然,由于”。

  注意下列情况下只用because:

1)  回答why的问题时

2)  用作表语从句时

3)  在强调句型中强调原因时

4)  连词前有only,just,simply等副词修饰时

2.  for是并列连词,不能放在句首,主要放在两个并列句之间,它表示非直接的随便附加说明的理由或推断的理由,即对前面所说的事情做补充说明,提供逻辑上的理由。

e.g. He couldn’t leave, for he was expecting a visitor.

   I asked her to stay to tea, for I had something to tell her.

l       让步状语从句

让步状语从句由although(though),as,even if(even though),however,whatever,no matter who等引导,应注意以下几点:

1.  由although,though引导让步状语从句时(意为“尽管”、“虽然”)主句前不能用连词but,但可以用still,yet等副词。

2.  由as引导让步状语从句时,须将作表语或状语的词放在句首,且若是名词前不加冠词(though也有词用法)。

e.g. Child as (though) she is, she knows a lot.

3.  “疑问词+ ever”与“No matter +疑问词”引导让步状语从句时通常可以换用。

e.g. Wherever you go (=No matter where you go), you must let your mother know.

l       地点状语从句的用法

 引导地点状语从句的词有where和wherever。

 引导地点状语从句时相当于表示地点的介词+名词接定语从句。

e.g. We should go where we are needed.

  = We should go to the place where we are needed.

l       其它状语从句的用法

1.  比较状语从句:(详见形容词副词比较级)

e.g. John plays football as well as, if not better than, David.

2. 条件状语从句:( if, unless, so (so) long as)

3. 目的状语从句:( so that, in order that, in case )

4. 方式状语从句:( as, as if, as though)

l       关于状语从句的几个共同的问题

1.  从句中用一般现在时代替将来时,现在完成时代替将来完成时,尤其在时间、条件、让步或方式状语从句中。

2.  从句中的省略,有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句中,如果从句的主语与主句的主语一致,从句谓语动词又包含动词be,就可以省略从句中的“主语+ be”部分。有时主语是it时,即使不与主句主语相同,也把“ it + be”部分省略。

e.g. If (I am) invited, I’ll go to the party.

   When (he was) still a boy, he had to work day and night.

   If (it is) necessary, I’ll explain it to you.

   Please send for a doctor as soon as (it is) possible.

3.  注意:

1)  由于受寒与“虽然……但是……”、“因为……所以……”“如果……就……”的影响,中国学生在学英语时易犯这样的错误。

2) 结果状语从句的引导词so … that …不能改为very … that …。

 

 

一致性

 

l       主语和谓语的一致性

1.  由and连接的复合名词作主语,其概念是复数。因此,相应的谓语动词要用复数形式。

【注意】and有时连接两个名词指一个人,同一件事或同一概念,这时候and后的名词前没有冠词,其谓语动词用单数形式。这里and相当于as well as(也)。

e.g. The writer and musician has changed his mind.

    Pork and peas is one of my favourite dishes.

【类似】the needle and thread(针线),salt and water(盐与水),the fork and knife(刀叉),soup and water(汤水),iron and steel(钢铁)

   如果and后面加not,谓语动词也用单数形式。

e.g. Mary, and not I, is chosen to make a speech.

  and连接的并列主语为单数概念,主语前面分别由each、every、no等词来修饰时,其谓语动词用单数。以many a修饰的单数名词后面的谓语动词也用单数形式,但其意义是复数的。

e.g. Every boy and girl is treated in the same way in our school.

   No teacher and no student agrees to have classes on Sunday.

【注意】The boy and the girl each have their own books.

        The driver and his passengers each were fined five dollars.

2.  主语后面接说明主语的修饰语或插入语时,谓语动词的数不受修饰成份的影响,仍同主语的关系一致。

 常见的有:

   和……一起:with, along with, together with

   和……一样:as well as, like

   除……之外:but, except, besides, in addition to

   包括:including

3.  集合名词做主语时,谓语要视句子内容而定,可以是单数,也可是复数,这要看主语是“整体”概念,还是“个体”概念。

 常见的有:group, class, team, family, army, audience, population, company, crew(船员), committee(委员会、委员), public, government, majority

【注意】1)people, police, cattle

        2)chance做“可能性”解时,既可作可数名词,也可作不可数名词。在数学上,做“概率”或“几率”解时,常用复数。

e.g. The chance is that one smoker in four will die from smoking.

The chances are ten to one that we will win. 我们十之八九会赢。

4.  几种结构前后主谓语的一致搭配。

 1)or, either … or, nor, neither … nor, there be, not only … but also

【注意】 Either of the bikes belongs to me.

         Neither of them has solved the problem.

  2)all (some, a lot, plenty, any, part, the rest, most, percent) + of …这时要注意其后是接可数名词还是接不可数名词,若是接可数名词,谓语动词用复数;若接不可数名词,谓语动词用单数。

【注意】(the) one of …注意其前面是否有定冠词the。

  3)few, a few, both, both of, a number of

【注意】a number of / the number of

  4)有些形容词、分词或数词与定冠词连用,其名词作用。如果这个短语表示是一类人,谓语动词用复数形式;若表示物或抽象概念,谓语动词则用单数形式。

  5)表示重量、距离、金钱、一段时间及由one and a half修饰的复数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

  6)分数作主语时,应注意其后的名词是可数名词还是不可数名词。如果是可数名词复数,谓语动词则用复数;如果是不可数名词,则谓语动词用单数。

  7)There be后面如果有一系列的事物,则看第一个。

  8)不定式(短语)、-ing形式作主语,应视为单数第三人称,谓语动词应用单数形式。

l       比较成份的一致性

1.  形容词、副词的比较成份要协调一致

1)  比较级+ and +比较级

2)  “the more … the more”结构

3)  在同级和不同级比较同时存在的句子中,应注意as … as …的一致关系。

e.g. John is as clever, if not cleverer, as Bill.

2.  在特殊的比较句型或结构中,比较的部分要协调一致

1)  形容词比较级表示最高级的句型

※     比较级 + than any other + 可数名词单数形式

※     比较级 + than all other + 可数名词复数形式

2)  no, never, nothing … + 比较级

e.g. No film that I have seen is more interesting than this one.

   I never read a more interesting book.

3)  不用形容词、副词比较级的比较句型

  prefer … to …, be similar to …, be different from, would rather … than …

4)  无比较级、最高级的形容词和副词。常见的有perfect(ly), excellent(ly), round, square, favourite等。

l       代词的一致性

1.  人称代词格的一致性

 人称代词作主语时用主格,作宾语时用宾格,作表语时用主格形式,在介词后面用宾格。

2.  人称代词数的一致性

1)  代词有单数、复数之分。

【注意】 Tom or Mike telephoned his wife.

         Tom and Mike telephone their wives.

         One must do one’s duty.

2)  如果在one前面加上any、some、every、each、no等词时,后面的物主代词应该用his,而不用one’s。

 

2:

 

状语从句在高考单项填空题型中一直倍受青睐,是高考考查的重点项目之一。笔者根据状语从句的用途,将其高考考点分类归纳如下,以飨读者。

一、时间状语从句

常用来引导时间状语从句的关联词有as,when,whenever,while,before,after,till,until,as soon as等。

[考例1]A good storyteller must be able to hold his listeners' curiosity ____ here aches the end of the story.(2003上海高考)

A.when  B.unless  C.after  D.until

[分析]主句谓语动词hold是延续性动词,根据句意:一个优秀的讲故事的人必须能够把听众的好奇心保持到他讲完故事为止。本题选D正确。

[考例2]Come and see me whenever ____.(2003北京高考)

A.you are convenient   B.you will be convenient

C.it is convenient to you  D.it will be convenient to you

[分析]在时间状语从句中,用一般现在时态表示将来。问某人是否觉得方便时,应该使用下面句型:Is it convenient to sb.?convenient也常用于it作形式主语的句型中:It is convenient for sb.to do sth.本题选C正确。

[考例3]He made a mistake,but then he corrected the situation ____ it got worse.(2003北京高考)

A.until B.when C.before D.as

[分析]根据句意:他犯了错误,但没等局势恶化,他就扭转了局势。before引导时间状语从句,本题选C正确。

某些表示时间的副词、名词短语和介词短语也可引导时间状语从句。如directly,immediately,the instant,the moment,the minute,the day,the year,each /every time,next time,the first(second,last)time,by the time等。

[考例4]-Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her?

-Yes,I gave it to her ____ I saw her.(2001北京、内蒙古、安徽春招)

A.while B.the moment C.suddenly  D.once

[分析]名词短语the moment可直接引导时间状语从句,其后面不要再用其它连词。本题选B正确。

二、地点状语从句

常用来引导地点状语从句的关联词有where,wherever等。

[考例5]The famous scientist grew up ____ he was born and in 1930 he came to Shanghai.(2002上海春招)

A.when B.whenever C.where D.wherever

[分析]根据句意:那位著名的科学家在出生地长大,于1930年来到上海。where引导地点状语从句,意为"在......的地方";wherever引导地点状语从句时,意为"无论在哪里"。本题选C正确。

三、原因状语从句

常用来引导原因状语从句的关联词有because,as,since,now that等。

[考例6]____ you've got a chance,you might as well make full use of it.(NMET1999)

A.Now that  B.After  C.Although  D.As soon as

[分析]now that意为"既然",常用来引导原因状语从句。本题选A正确。

[考例7]The Italian boy was regarded as a hero ____ he gave his life for his country.(MET1985)

A.according to B.because of  C.on account of  D.because

[分析]根据句意:那位意大利男孩被看作是英雄,因为他为祖国献出了生命。because引导原因状语从句,而B和C两个选项连接名词或名词短语。本题选D正确。

[考例8]We had better hurry ____ it is getting dark.(MET1984)

A.and B.but C.as D.unless

[分析]根据句意:由于天渐渐黑了,我们最好抓紧时间。as在此引导原因状语从句。本题选C正确。

四、结果状语从句

常用来引导结果状语从句的关联词有that,so(that),so...that,such...that等。

[考例9]We were in ____ when we left that we forgot the airline tickets.(2003上海高考)

A.a rush so anxious   B.a such anxious rush  C.so an anxious rush  D.such an anxious rush

[分析]本句是由such...that引导的结果状语从句,由于句中插入了when we left这一时间状语从句,它起到了较大的干扰作用,从而增加了试题的难度。本题选D正确。

五、目的状语从句

常用来引导目的状语从句的关联词有that,so that,in order that,in case等。从句的谓语常由"can /could,may /might +动词原形"构成,有时也用"shall/should,will /would +动词原形"。

[考例10]Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report ____ her boss could read it first the next morning.(2003安徽春招)

A.so that B.because C.before D.or else

[分析]根据句意分析,本句应为目的状语从句。本题选A正确。

六、条件状语从句

常用来引导条件状语从句的关联词有if,unless,when(如果),suppose,sup-posing,given that,in case(that),on condition that,as /so long as等。

[考例11]____ I know the money is safe,I shall not worry about it.(2003北京高考)

A.Even though  B.Unless  C.As long as  D.While

[分析]as long as意为"只要",引导条件状语从句。根据句意分析,本题选C正确。

[考例12]Don't be afraid of asking for help ____ it is needed.(NMET2003)

A.unless  B.since   C.although   D.when

[分析]根据句意分析,when在此句中意为"如果",引导条件状语从句,相当于if。本题选D正确。

[考例13]I would appreciate it ____ you call back this afternoon for the doctor's appointment.(2003上海春招)

A.until  B.if  C.when  D.that

[分析]根据句意分析,本句是由if引导的条件状语从句,本题选B正确。

[考例14]You will succeed in the end ____ you give up halfway.(2001上海春招)

A.even if B.as though  C.as long as D.unless

[分析]本句意为:如果你不中途放弃,你最终会成功。本题选D正确。

[考例15]I shall stay in the hotel all day ____ there is news of the missing child.(2000上海春招)

A.in case  B.no matter  C.in any case  D.ever since

[分析]in case意为"以防",用来引导条件状语从句。本句意为:我将在旅店呆一整天,以防有丢失孩子的消息。本题选A正确。

七、让步状语从句

常用来引导让步状语从句的关联词有though,although,even if/though,whatever,whoever,whichever,however,whether...or...,no matter who等。

[考例16]-Dad,I've finished my assignment.

-Good,and ____ you play or watch TV,you mustn't disturb me.(2003上海高考)

A.whenever  B.whether  C.whatever  D.no matter

[分析]由题干中的or可知,这是由whether...or...引导的让步状语从句。本题选B正确。

[考例17]Mr.Hall understands that ____ math has always been easy for him,it is not easy for the students.(2003安徽春招)

A.unless  B.since  C.although  D.when

[分析]根据句意分析,本句是由al-though引导的让步状语从句。本题选C正确。

[考例18]We'll have to finish the job,____.(NMET1999)

A.long it takes however    B.it takes however long

C.long however it takes    D.however long it takes

[分析]根据句意:不管用多长时间,我们都要把工作做完。本题选D正确。

八、方式状语从句

常用来引导方式状语从句的关联词有as,as if /though,the way,how,as...as,not so/as...as,than等。

[考例19]John plays football ____,if not better than,David.(NMET1994)

A.as well B.as well as  C.so well D.so well as

[分析]本题主要考查副词的比较等级,该句型属于表示比较的方式状语从句。本题选B正确。

 

 2:

 

状语从句在句中相当于副词做状语, 又叫副词性从句。状语从句分为时间状语从句、条件状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、让步状语从句、结果状语从句和 比较状语从句。掌握状语从句应当引导词入手,注意引导词的词义,引导状语从句的引导词都有词思,所以,了解引导词的意思尤为重要。引导词按意义分为九类:

1) 时间  when , as , while , till , until , before  , after , since

2) 地点  where

3) 原因  because , as , since , now that

4) 条件  if , unless , once .  so (as)  long as . in case

5) 让步  though , whatever (--ever  ) as  , even though  , even if

6) 目的  so that   , in order that 

7) 结果  so ... that

8) 比较  than  , as .. as 

9) 方式  as , as if

例如:

1.    I fell asleep when ( as , while ) he was doing his exercises .

他正作练习时我睡着了。(时间状语从句)

2.    When he arrived in Shanghai , his mother met him at the station .

他到上海时,他妈妈到车站接他。(时间状语从句)

3.    She always sings as she walks .

她总是一边走一边唱。( 时间状语从句)

4.I waited until he had finished his work .

   我等到他做完活。(时间状语从句)

5.It was not long before he told me about this affair .

   不久,他就告诉我这件事。(时间状语从句)

6.He has worked very hard since he entered the factory .

   自从他进厂,工作一直很努力。(时间状语从句)

7.After he had finished the work , he went home .

   他干完活,回家了。(时间状语从句)

8.Where there is a will, there is a way .

    有志者,事竟成。(地点状语从句)

9.She didn't come to school because she was ill .

   她由于有病没来上学。(原因状语从句)

10.As he did not know much English , he looked up the word in the dictionary .

    由于他不懂什么英语,所以查字典。(原因状语从句)

11.Now that ( Since ) I've told you twice , you must know it .

   既然我告诉你两次了,你必须记住。(原因状语从句)

12.Once he says that , he will do it .

    一旦他说了,他就会做。(条件状语从句)

13.Unless I receive the letter from him , I won't write to him again .

   如果我不收到他的信,就不给他写回信。(条件状语从句)

14.So long as you work hard , you are sure to succeed .

    只要你努力工作,就一定能成功。(条件状语从句)

15. Though  we  were neither very big nor very strong , we were a good team .

     虽然我们个儿不大,身体不壮,但是个好队。(让步状语从句)

16.No matter who she is , she'll have to wait .

     无论她是谁,也得等。 (让步状语从句)

17.Poor as he was , he was honest .

   虽然他很穷,但很诚实。(让步状语从句)

18.It also shows you the caller's telephone number  in order that you can recognize who it is .

    它能向你显示打电话人的号码以便能够认出是谁。(目的状语从句)

  19. He was so excited that he could not say a word .

      他如此激动以至于说不出话来。( 结果状语从句)

20.He works as hard as he used to .

    他工作与过去一样努力。(方式状语从句)

21.You must do as I told you .

    你必须按我告诉你的去做。(方式状语从句)

  运用状语从句应注意的几个问题:

1) 状语从句中用一般现在时代替一般将来时

2)  because 不与so  连用, 表示"因为...所以" 二者只能选择其一 ;  though ( although ) 不与but 连用, 表示 " 虽然...但是" ,二者只能选择其一.

3) 同一引导词可以引导不同种类的从句. 如: where

You'll find it  where it was .  (地点状语从句)

Tell me the address    where he lives . (定语从句)

I don't know  where he came from . (宾语从句)

Where he has gone  is not known yet . (主语从句)

This is where they once lived . ( 表语从句)

 since , as, when   也分别可以引导不同种类的从句.

练习题

 I .填入适当的引导词

1. I haven't heard from him _____ he went to America .

2.He won't be here _____ he is invited .

3. He will not go to the cinema _____ he is very busy .

4. We found the key _____ she lad left it .

5. We found the books two days ____ he had gone away .

6. We had no sooner got to the station _____ the train left .

7. He  speaks English ______ he were an Englishman .

8.He is explaining clearly _______ they could understand .

9. Do not leave the room _____ you have finished the test .

10. She sang ______ she went along .

答案: 1.since 2.unless 3.because 4.where 5.after 6.than 7.as if  8.so that  9.before 10.as

II.改错

1. The children were running on the playground as fast as they can .

2.Since her husband had died , so she had to support  her family .

3.He won't go out until his mother will come .

4.He was very foolish that he didn't pass such an easy exam .

5.Tom had gone out as soon as his mother got home .

6.It was three months since he came to our school .

7.The playground of our school is larger than their school .

8.The streets in Nanjing are wider than Shanghai .

9.Whatever there is plenty of sun and rain , the fields are green .

10. She sings  songs  as if  she is a bird .

答案:1. can 改为could 2.去掉so 3.will come改为 comes 4. very改为 so 5.as soon as 改为when 6.was 改为is 7.than 之后加上that of  8.than   后加 those in  9.whatever改为 wherever 10. is改为 were

III. 找出从句并指出是那类从句

1. It depends on whether we have enough time .

2.The question he asked was where the electrical equipment should be stored  .

3. The mountain is no longer what it used to be .

4. The fact that she works hard is well known to us all .

5. He was  not  the man that he was before .

6. Now  you was free , why not go swimming with us ?

7. Where there are schools and colleges , there are examinations .

8. Bad habits , once firmed , are difficult to give up .

9.She often wears the same kind of skirt as her twin sister does .

10 .The moment he opened the window , a bird flew in .

答案:

1.whether we have enough time  介词宾语从句

2.he asked  定语从句  where the electrical equipment should be stored表语从句

3.what it used to be 表语从句

4. that she works hard  同位语从句

5. that he was before 定语从句

6.Now  you was free 让步状语从句 now= now that

7.Where there are schools and colleges  地点状语从句

8. once firmed     时间状语从句

9. as her twin sister does   定语从句

10.  The moment he opened the window 时间状语从句

IV.填入适当的引导词完成句子

1.____ will do the experiment comes to the professor's office .

2. ___ will do the experiment hasn't been decided .

3. The teacher didn't leave ______ twelve o'clock .

4. ______ the day went on , the weather got worse .

5. _____ she is young , she knows quite a lot .

6.  It worried her a bit ____ her hair was turning grey .

7. You will be late ____ you leave immediately.

8.Go and get your coat . It's ______ you left it .

9.______ is mentioned above , the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing .

10. ____ had I entered the room ____ the phone rang .

答案:1.Whoever 2. Who 3.until 4.As 5.Although 6.that 7.unless 8.where 9.As 10 Hardly, when ( No sooner , than )

V. 改错

1.Is this the watch for which he is looking now ?

2. This is all which I can do for you .

3.Do you know the old man at the back of the room, whom has been chosen head of the factory .

4. I want to know the way which you learn new words .

5. Can you tell me that there's a bookstore near here ?

6. Our school quite different from that it was before .

7. If she likes the present is not clear to me .

8.For she is ill , she  hasn't come to school .

9. It gave him so a big shock that his face turned pale .

10. He is cleverer than any boy in his class .

答案:1.for  放在looking 之后 2.which 改为 that  3.whom 改为who 4.which改为 how 5.that改为 whether 6.that 改为what 7.If改为 Whether 8.For改为Because 9.so改为 such 10.any 后加other 

 

 

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