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阅读理解题型专项突破——推理判断  

2009-10-12 13:17:29|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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阅读理解题型专项突破——推理判断 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

【命题特点】

这类题属于主观题,是层次较高的设题。它包括判断和推理题。这两类题常常相互依存,推理是为了得出正确的判断,正确的判断又依赖于合乎逻辑的推理。推理题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,做出一定判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可是某几句话,但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文字根据的推理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理。所以,推理题的答案只能是根据原文表面文字信息一步推出的答案:即对原文某一句话或某几句话所作的同义改写(paraphrase)或综合。

【常见考法】

推理题经常使用的提问方式有:

It can be inferred/ concluded that___________.

Which of the following conclusions can we draw according to the passage?

In which of the following publication would this passage most likely be printed?

The passage implies, but doesn't directly state that___________.

The writer suggests that___________.

What's the author's attitude toward___________?

The writer probably feels that___________.

The author uses the examples of... to show that___________.

判定推理是一种创造性的思维活动,但它并非无章可循。

推理判定题要在阅读理解整体语篇的基础上,把握文章的真正内涵。①要吃透文章的字面意思,从字里行间捕捉有用的提示和线索,这是推理的前提和基础;②要对文字的表面信息进行挖掘加工,由表入里,由浅入深,从具体到抽象,从非凡到一般,通过分析、综合、判定等,进行深层处理,符合逻辑地推理。不能就是论事,断章取义,以偏概全。③要忠实于原文,以文章提供的事实和线索为依据。立足已知,推断未知。立足现在,猜测未来。不能主观臆想,凭空想象,随意揣测,更不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点;④要把握句、段之间的逻辑关系,了解语篇的结构。要体会文章的基调,揣摸作者的态度,摸准逻辑发展的方向,悟出作者的弦外之音。

一、细节推断题

要求考生根据语篇关系,推断具体细节,如时间、地点、人物关系、人物身份、事件等。一般可根据短文提供的信息,或者借助生活常识进行推理判定。

【例题】

A visitor visits an island where two tribes live. One tribe always tells the truth and the other always lies. The truthtellers live on the western side of the island, and those who lie live on the eastern side. The visitor wants to determine whether the native beside him is a truthteller or not by asking only one question. He asks the native,“Go and ask the native in the distance which side of the island he lives on.” When the messenger returns, he says, "He said he lives on the western side of the island."

Is the messenger a truth teller or not? How can the visitor be sure?

1. According to the messenger's answer, the visitor can conclude that_______________

A. The messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth.

B. the messenger lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie.

C. it's hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth teller or not.

D. the messenger probably lives in the western side of the island because his answer may be true.

2. The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is wrong?

A. He may live on the eastern side of the island. 

B. He may live on the western side of the island.

C. He may be telling the truth.                D. He can't be telling the truth.

解析: 第1题是推测有关信使(近处的当地人)的情况的。我们知道,讲真话的部落住在岛的西部,撒谎的部落住在岛的东部。这个信使去问远方的当地人住在岛的哪一边(东部还是西部)。远方的当地人只能有两种情况,要么住在岛的西部,要么住在岛的东部。假如他住在岛的西部,他就是一个讲真话的人,他就会如实回答他住在西部。假如他住在岛的东部,他就是一个撒谎的人。他本来住在东部,但在回答时,必须要说谎,他只能回答他住在西部。所以远方的当地人不管是住在东部还是西部,他的回答只有一个:“我住在西部”。假如信使告诉参观者远方的当地人住在西部,信使无疑是说了真话,那么信使一定是住在岛的西部。反之,假如信使告诉参观者远方的当地人住在东部,那么信使就说了假话,信使肯定住在东部。故此题答案是A。

第2题是推测远方的当地人的情况的。从短文提供的信息来看,我们无法判定远方的当地是住在岛的东部还是岛的西部,两种情况都是可能存在的。此题要留意情态动词的语气。A.“他可能住在岛的西部”;B.“他可能住在岛的东部”;C.“他可能讲了真话”。上述A、B、C三种情况都是可能的。D.“他不可能讲真话”,语气太绝对。推测错误。故答案为D。

二、因果推断题

要求考生根据已知结果推测导致结果的可能原因。考生要正确把握文章的内涵,理解文章的真正含义。

When the young waitress near my house started saying hello to me every day, I was very happy. She was at least fifteen years younger than I. One day she signedme to come near. When I walked over, she asked,“Are you single?" “Why, yes." I answered, smiling at her happily.

 “So is my mother." she said, “Would you like to meet her?"

1. The writer talked about the waitress' age because he thought___________.

A. she was young               B. it a pleasure to make friends with her

 C. she was beautiful             D. it strange for her to fall in love withhim

2. The waitress said hello to the writer every day because___________.

A. she lived near his house                 B. he often went to visit her mother

C. she wanted to be friendly with him        D. she loved him very much

解析: 这是两道推测原因的题目。女服务员天天向作者示好,作者产生误解,以为女孩对他有意。考虑到他们年龄相差悬殊,作者认为女孩爱上他有点希奇。故第1题答案是D。女孩问作者是否单身,并提到她母亲也是单身,并邀请他与她母亲见面,可见,女孩天天向他问好,目的是想取得他的好感,进而搓和他和她母亲。第2题答案是C。

The entertainment profession or “show business" attracts many young people. Unfortunately, only very few can hope to become famous and successful. Talent is not enough, because show business is as competitive as any other business .Without a good manager ,a performer can never hope to succeed .Fashion is important in this business, too. The best tailor in the world will never be a success if he makes old-fashioned clothes. In exactly the same way, a performer must change his “act" in order to follow the taste of the moment. This is true for actors, dancers and comedians, but perhaps most of all singers.

“Pop" stands for “popular" and a pop singer has to work very hard to become popular .He must either give the public what they already want, or he must find a new way of singing that will attract their attention. Even when he has succeeded, and his records are sold everywhere, he can not relax. Then he must work harder than ever because there are always younger singers trying to become famous and to steal some of the popularity. The life of a successful pop singer is not at all easy. He can only relax when he is alone, because everything he does is watched and reported in the special newspaper written for the “fans”. The fans are the most important people in the world for the singers. They buy his records, they go to his concerts and they make him rich and famous. But they can be very annoying, too. Sometimes their enthusiasm get so hysterical that they do anything to get a “souvenir"(纪念品). They steal handkerchiefs, they tear off buttons, and they even cut off pieces of the unfortunate singer's hair. Many singers have been forced to hide. A pop singer has to spend a lot of money on clothes, because he must always look smart or at any rate different. He must have a luxurious car. And — most important — he must always keep smiling for the benefit of his public.

1. Why must a pop singer have a good manager?___________.

A. To protect him from his fans     B. To look after his business interests

C. To help him to change his “act"    D .So that he can relax

2. Why must a pop singer work even harder when he has become famous?___________

A. Because he wants to attract the attention of the public 

B. Because he wants to sell more records 

C. Because he wants to become popular           

D. Because he wants to stay popular

解析: 1. 答案为B。因果推断题。根据Talent is not enough, because show business is as competitive as any other business. Without a good manager, a performer can never hope to succeed .我们可以知道,正因为这个行业竞争激烈,所以表演者需要一个好的经纪人。帮助演员策划和安排商业表演活动,协助他的演艺事业的发展。故B项正确。

2. 答案为D。因果推断题。Then he must work harder than ever because there are always younger singers trying to become famous and to steal some of the popularity. 一个成名演员要更加努力地工作,直接原因文中已有论述,即,表演行业是个竞争十分激烈的行业,新人不断涌现,对成名演员造成很大的压力。那么间接原因是什么?通过前面的分析我们可以推断出成名演员更加买力地工作,是因为他要保持他的名气,延长他的艺术生命。

Once Napoleon stayed in a small inn. The next morning, he went to thank the innkeeper. “You, have served me well, innkeeper, “said Napoleon. “I wish to reward you. Tell me what you want."  “Sir, we want nothing, “said the innkeeper. “But will you tell us something?" “What is it?" Napoleon asked. 

 “We have heard a story." said the innkeeper, “that once during the war, a small village was taken by the Russians. You happened to be in the village. You hid while they looked for you. Will you tell us how you felt when they were looking for you?" Napoleon looked very angry. He called in two of his soldiers. Then he pointed to the door. The soldiers took the innkeeper and his wife out into the yard. 

At the end of the yard was a wall. The innkeeper and his wife were led to the wall. The soldiers tied the hands of the innkeeper and his wife. Napoleon watched, saying nothing. 

 “Please, sir." begged the innkeeper, “Don't kill us! we meant nothing!" The soldiers moved back. The innkeeper saw them raising their guns. Then Napoleon called: “Ready! Aim!" The wife screamed. “Stop!" said Napoleon. He went to the innkeeper, “Now, you know the answer to the question you asked me just now, don't you?" 

1.Why did the innkeeper ask Napoleon to tell him how Napoleon felt when he was being looked for?

 A. He wanted to know the difference between a general and an ordinary people.

B. He looked down upon Napoleon, for he thought a great man shouldn't be defeated. 

C. He showed his sympathy (同情) to Napoleon in time of danger. 

D. He was interested in other's failure, especially Napoleon's.

2. Why did Napoleon ordered his men to tie the couple?

A. Because he wanted to teach the innkeeper a good lesson for bothering him.

B. Because he wanted to kill the couple to get rid of his anger.

C. Because he wanted to show that he was so admiring a general that nobody could upset him.

D. Because he wanted to made the innkeeper know that a general like him had the same feeling as the ordinary people in face of danger.

解析: 1. 此题为因果推断题。根据“Sir, we want nothing, " said the innkeeper. “But will you tell us something?" 可以看出来,这个店老板问拿破仑这个问题是出于好奇。他想知道作为将军的拿破仑与普通人到底有什么区别。故答案为A。

2. 因果推断题。从最后一句话“Now, you know the answer to the question you asked me just now, don't you?" 可以看出拿破仑并不想杀这个店老板,他这样做的目的是想让他体验一下他当时的感受。故可推出面对危险像拿破仑这样的将军与普通人没有什么两样。故答案为D。

三、人物性格、态度及观点判定题

高考阅读测试中有些是考查考生对作者的主导思想、被描写人物语气、言谈话语中流露的情绪、性格倾向和作者或文中人物态度、观点等方面的理解题。做这一类题时一定要留意:

1)由表及里的正确把握字里行间的意思,切勿用自己的主观想法或观点代替作者的思想观点。

 2)特殊留意那些描写环境气氛的语言,以及表达感情、态度观点的词语。要特殊留意作者在文章中的措词,尤其是表达感情色彩的形容词。

3)能结合自己平时积累的有关英语国家的文化传统、风俗习惯等背景知识来识别评价。  A well-known old man was being interviewed and was asked if it was correct that he had just celebrated his 99th birthday, “That's right," said the old man. “Ninety-nine years old, and I haven't an enemy in the world. They 're all dead."

“Well sir," said the interviewer, “I hope very much to have the honor of interviewing you on your hundredth birthday."

The old man looks at the young man closely, and said, “I can't see why you shouldn't. You look fit and healthy to me!"

1. What kind of man would you say the old man was?

A. He was silly. B. He was unpleasant.      C. He was very proud and sure of his health.

D. He was very impolite to young people.

解析: 记者希望在老人100岁生日时能再访老人,希望他能活到100岁。而老人故意歧解记者的话(我看不出你明年为什么不能采访我?你似乎还很健康呀!)表现了老人对自己健康状态的自信。答案为C。

Three men were discussing how to donate(捐献) money to God. At first they couldn't agree with each other, then they each told his own idea.

The first man said: “Let's draw a small circle on the ground and throw coins to the ground. The money out of the circle belongs to God."

The second man added, “We will donate the coins inside the circle to God because God is in our hearts."

The third man said: “Your ideas are not bad, but I have a better idea than yours. Let's throw coins into the sky. The coins that God accepts belong to him. So God can accept as much money as he can."

At last, they agreed to the last idea, and they began to throw coins to the sky happily.

1. According to the passage, we can draw a conclusion:

A. All the three men were kindhearted.

B. The third man is more generous than the other two.

C. None of them believed in God.         

D. Three men are all stingy(吝啬) people.

解析:从三人提的建议看,他们三人都不乐意给上帝捐钱,三人都是吝啬的人,故选D。

四、猜测想象推理题

有些内容文章中没有明确说明,要求考生根据语篇,对事件可能的结局或下段可能涉及的内容等进行猜测推理。做这类题时应把握作者的写作思路(如文章可能按事件发展的经过描写,也可能按因果关系、对比关系来叙述),从而作出比较科学的、合情合理的猜测。

We are in the computer age. We often see computers at work. They are especially useful in automatic control, date processing(数据处理) and solving complicated problems. And they are finding their way into the home. The part played by computers is becoming even more important with each passing day. More and cleverer computers will continue to appear. They will run faster, have more functions and work more skillfully. They will take over more tasks from us, helping to change the face of our world. Some people even think that sooner or later computers will replace us.

 However…

1. Which of the following statements is most likely to be talked about in the third paragraph?    A. Computers will soon stop developing.    

B. Computers are as clever as man.

C. Many people like computers very much.

D.I don't think computers will replace us completely.

解析: 本文采用了对比关系来描写。前面描写了计算机的优势,但作者用 however 一词预示将引出相反的观点,答案为D。

There was ice on the road, and the doctor's car hit a tree and turned over three times. To his surprise, he was not hurt .He got out of the car and walked to the nearest house, he wanted to telephone the garage(汽车修理厂) for help. The door was opened by one of his patients.

“Oh, Doctor." she said, “I have only just telephoned you. You must have a very fast car. You have got here very quickly indeed. There has been a very bad accident in the road outside. I saw it through the window. I am sure the driver will need your help".

1.Which of the following is the most likely reply the doctor gave the woman patient at the end of the story?

A. “Yes, he does need help — your help, not mine."

B.  “Another accident? I've just had an accident myself?"

C. “I got your call and rushed over. I hope I'm not too late."

D. “I didn't get your call. But I'm here and hope I can help".

解析: 出事故的车恰恰是医生的车,当他听他的病人说出事司机需要帮助时,他会不失幽默地说:“是的,他需要帮助,是你的帮助,而不是我的帮助”。——他要借用病人家的电话给修车厂打电话。答案是A。

五、写作意图推测题

此题型要求考生根据文章的论述,推测作者的写作意图及运用某种写作手法的目的。作者一般不直接陈述自己的意图,而是通过文章所提供的事实和形象,客观地使读者信服某种想法或意见。这种题型要求同学们不但能理解文章的内容,同时还要具备对作者阐述问题的写作方法进行归纳总结和分析的能力。

Imagine that the genome(基因组) is a book. The book consists of 23 chapters with thousands of stories made up of paragraphs, words and letters on different levels. There are one billion words in the book, which makes it longer than 5,000 volumes the size of this book, or as long as 800 Bibles. If I read the genome out to you at the rate of one word per second for eight hours a day, it would take me a century. If I wrote out the human genome, one letter per millimeter, my text would be as long as the River Danube.

1. The real purpose of the author's comparison of the genome to a book is___________.

A. to focus on the differences between the two

B. to lay emphasis on the similarities between the two

C. to simplify the concept of the human genome

D. to give an exact description of the human genome

解析: “基因组”是一个非常抽象难懂的科学术语。作者在这里把“基因组”比作一本书,使一般读者能通俗形象地了解“基因组”的概念。故答案为C。

Beldon and Canfield are two seashore towns, not far apart. Both towns have many hotels, and in summer the hotels are full of holidaymakers and other tourists(观光者).

Last August there was a fire at the Seabreeze Hotel in Beldon. The next day, this news appeared on page two of the town's newspaper. The Beldon Post: FIRE AT SEABREEZE

Late last night firemen hurried to the Seabreeze Hotel and quickly put out a small fire in a bedroom. The hotel manager said that a cigarette started the fire. We say again to all our visitors: “Please don't smoke cigarettes in bed.”This was Beldon's first hotel fire for five years. 

 The Canfield Times gave the news in these words on page one:

ANOTHER BELDON HOTEL CATCHES FIRE

Last night Beldon firemen arrived just too late to save clothing, bedclothes and some furniture at the Seabreeze Hotel. An angry holidaymaker said, “An electric lamp probably started the fire. The bedroom lamps are very old at some of these hotels. When I put my bedside light on, I heard a funny noise from the lamp.

“We are glad to tell our readers that this sort of adventure does not happen in Canfield. 

What are the facts, then? It is never easy to find out the exact truth about an accident. There was a fire at the Seabreeze Hotel last August: that is one fact. Do we know anything else? Yes, we know that firemen went to the hotel. 

 Now what do you think of the rest of the “news" ?

1.The Canfield Times used the headline(标题)like this in order to make its readers think -_.

A. hotels in Beldon often catch fire         

B. hotels in Beldon don't often catch fire

C. this was the second fire at the Seabreeze Hotel

D. Beldon was a good place except that hotels there are not quite safe

解析: 答案为 A。作者意图推断题。本文通过两个对手城市的报纸对同一件火灾事故的不同报道,对新闻报道的真实性提出了怀疑。ANOTHER BELDON HOTEL CATCHES FIRE中ANOTHER是个要害词,暗示了Beldon的宾馆火灾频繁。

 

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