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高考英语语法最后30天精讲精练----虚 拟 语 气  

2009-10-16 21:21:06|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高考英语语法最后30天精讲精练----虚 拟 语 气 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

虚 拟 语 气

1、If 条件句

  时 间

 从 句

     主    句

与现在相反

  过 去 式

would / should /could / might do

与过去相反

     had done

would / should / could have done

 

与将来相反

① 过去式 

② were to do

③ should do

 

would /should /could / might do

 

If I were you, I would leave now.

        If you had asked me yesterday, I could have told you.

        If it should rain tomorrow, we couldnt climb.

NOTICE: 错综时间条件句(根据所表示的时间调整)

      If you had followed me, you wouldnt miss the train now.

 

2、主语从句中的虚拟

 

  ①It is (was) important (necessary, strange ) that-clause

          It’s necessary that you (should) be present at the meeting. 

     ②It is (was) ordered (suggested, required, requested) that-clause

          It was ordered that the room (should) be cleaned.

 

3、wish + that-clause

 

     ①现在的愿望:I wish that you werent so lazy.

     ②过去的愿望:I wish that you hadnt hurt Jim so much.

     ③将来的愿望:I wish you wouldnt talk like that.

    --- Have you ever studied French ?

               --- No, but I wish I had.

 

4、表语从句和同位语从句中的虚拟

 

  通常由几个要求接虚拟语气的名词引起:order, demand, suggestion

         He gave orders that the test (should) be finished before 5:30.

         His suggestion is that the house (should) be built there.

 

5、宾语从句中的虚拟

 

  下列动词后的宾语从句用虚拟语气:demand, insist, order, require, etc.

     The judge ordered that the thief (should) not be punished.

        NOTICE: ①suggest   “暗示,表明“

            Her expression suggested that he was angry.

             ②insist   “坚持认为是怎么回事”

            The Arab insisted that he had never seen the camel.

            He insisted that John (should) do it.

 

6、状语从句中的虚拟

 

 ①as if (though)

         ●与现在相反,从句用过去时

               He talks as if he knew everything.

       ●与过去相反,从句用过去完成时

               He looks (looked) as if she had wept.

      ●客观事实,从句用陈述句语气

                 It looks as if you are tired.

 ②so that, even if (though)

           Nothing could have saved him even if he had been tended .

 

7、由介词短语引起的虚拟语气

 

   ①without :     Without  your help, I shouldnt get a result.

②but for”若非“:   But for you, we couldnt have carried out the plan.

 

8、句型

 

 ①It’s time + that-clause (指现在或将来)

         Its time that you went to school .( should go to school)

 ②would rather + that-clause(指现在或将来)

         Id rather you went home now.

         Don’t come tomorrow, Id rather you came next week.

    ③what if…  “如果… 怎么办?“

         What if they should come here ?

 

 

9、虚拟语气的倒装

 

      Were I you, I would leave now.

       Had you asked me yesterday, I could have told you.

       Should it rain tomorrow, we couldn’t climb.

 

EXERCISES:

 

1.We       last night, but we went to the concert instead.     A. would  study

      A. must have studied      C. might study     D. should have studied

2.---When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon.

   ---They       be ready by 12:00.  A. can  B. should  C. might  D. need

3. ---Will you stay for lunch?       ---Sorry,          . My brother is coming to

    see me.   A. I can’t       B. I mustn’t     C. I needn’t     D. I won’t

4. ---Write to me when you get home.     ---          .

     A..I must       B. I should       C.I will             D. I can

5. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone      get out.

      A. had to        B. would        C. was able to       D. could

6. Tom ought not to        me your secret, but he meant no harm.

      A. have told      B. tell      C. be telling        D. having told

7. A computer       think for itself, it must be told what to do.

       A. can’t        B. couldn’t       C. may not       D. might not

8. Peter        come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet.

       A. must       B. may       C. can       D. will                   (DBACCAAB)

 

句  子  结  构

 

一、特殊疑问句(常用疑问词)

★WHAT

 

● what…like ?  ①人或事物的外观特征;②天气

   What’s  your brother like ?  (长相或人品)

      What’s t the weather like today ?

                                  How  do you like the film ?

                                  What do you like ?

● what time / date / year …

     --What’s  the date today ?            -- (It’s) October 15.

     --What date will he arrive ?

            -- (He’ll arrive) on October 15.

● what…for ? = why

    --What’s it for ?   --(it’s for) cutting grass.

    --What did you do that for ?

         -- Because I wanted to save  time.

              ( To save time.)

●what kind(s) / sort(s) of…?

    What kind of picture(s) do you like best ?

●what size

     --What size shoes do you take ?           -- (Size) 41.

●what height / length / depth / age

        →how high / long / deep / old

               What’s the height of that mountain ?

               What height is that mountain ?

               How high is that mountain ?

 

   ★ WHICH

 

●which day /month / year…?      (比when更具体)

      -- Don’t forget his birthday ?

             -- I won’t. Which /What day is it ?

●which / what /who 比较

        which 更具体,或用which one

         Which book are you going to buy ?(哪本书)

         What book are you going to buy ?(哪种书)

Who do you like best ?

            Which one do you like best, Tom or Jack ?

 

   ★WHY

 

●Why not (don’t you) buy a new coat ?

●--Let s set out tonight.           --Yes, why not.

 

   ★ HOW

 

●    How is your mother ?

        How is your mother getting along ?

●    How is the weather there ?

        What’s the weather like today ?

●    How do you find the film ?

        How do you like the film?

        How / What about the film ?

        What do you think of the film?

 ●    --How often do you go to the zoo ?

        --Once every two months.

●--How soon will you be ready to start ?       -- In two days .                                                                                

●How far is it from here to the airport ?

 

◇  综合问题

 

①简答中介词跟在疑问词之后

        -- I want to leave this parcel.

        --Who for ?   ( leave sth for sb)

②else跟在疑问词后  (which 和whose 除外)

        Where else did you go ?

③用do 作简略回答

          --Who wants a lift ? (搭便车)                 -- I do.

          --How many students understood this ?           --They all did.

④用ever, on earth 或 in the world 放在疑问词后强调

      Where on earth / in the world / ever did you pick that up ?

 

二、反意疑问句

 

1、陈述句主语是-one, -body 时,疑问部分主语用they

          Nobody says a word, do they ?

2、陈述句主语是-thing, this, that 时,疑问部分主语用it

          Everything seems all right, doesn’t it ?

3、陈述句主语是从句、动词不定式、动名词时,疑问部分用it

          Swimming is great fun, isn’t it ?

4、感叹句的反意疑问句  (感叹句的附加疑问句,其谓语要求用否定句。)

           What fine weather, isn’t it?

5、祈使句的反意疑问句

           Do that, will you ?   (won’t you )

6、Let’s… , Let us…

          Let’s go, shall we ?       Let us go, will you ?

7、I’m

           I’m interested in English, aren’t I ? 

8、I wish…

           I wish I were you, may I ?

9、含had better, would rather, would like to do

           You’d better come early, hadn’t you ?

           You’d rather work than play, wouldn’t you ?

10、陈述句部分含下列否定词时,疑问部分用肯定

            few, little, hardly, never, no one, no

            There is little ink in your pen, is there ?

11、加前后缀构成的否定,疑问部分仍然用否定

             It’s unfair, isn’t it ?

12、陈述部分有must

        ①must be 对现在情况进行推测

            He must be very tired, isn’t he ?

        ②must have done (对过去推测) 有过去时间状语

            He must have come yesterday, didn’t he ?

        ③must have done (由过去延续到现在)

            He must have lived here at least 10 years , hasn’t he ?

        ④must + v.   一定要, 必须

            You must renew the book, needn’t you ?

13、当陈述部分是一个(带that引导宾语从句的)主从复合句时,附加疑问句的主谓要和主句的主谓保持对应关系。但是, 当陈述部分的主语是:I suppose, I think, I believe, I imagine, I expect等结构时,附加疑问句的主语和谓语要和从句的主语,谓语保持一致关系。而且要注意到否定的转移问题。

 

14、当陈述部分是I’m sure that,;we are sure;I’m afraid that;We are sure that;I feel sure that 等后面跟宾语从句时,反意疑问句与后面的宾语从句一致。

 

15、当陈述部分是并列句时,附加疑问句的主谓语要合离它最近的句子的主谓保持对应关系。

 

16、在口语和非正式文体中,为了加强语气,只是表示某种惊奇、怀疑、反感、讽刺等感情而并不是为了寻求回答,这时前后两部分的肯定、否定是一致的。

 如: Oh, he is a writer,  is he?      You’ll not go, won’t you?

 

 

 

 

反意疑问句快速记忆表

陈述部分的谓语

疑问部分

I’m

aren't I

Wish

may +主语

no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly,rarely, little等否定含义的词

肯定含义

ought to(肯定的)

shouldn't/ oughtn't +主语

have to+v.(had to+v.)

don't +主语(didn't +主语)

used to

didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语

had better + v.

hadn't you

would rather + v.

wouldn't +主语

you'd like to + v.

wouldn't +主语

感叹句中

be +主语

Neither…nor,either…or 连接的并列主语

根据其实际逻辑意义而定

指示代词或不定代词Everything/that/nothing/this

主语用it

并列复合句

谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定

定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句

根据主句的谓语而定

think, believe, expect,suppose, imagine等引导

与宾语从句相对应的从句

everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one

复数they, 单数he

情态动词dare或need

need (dare ) +主语

dare, need 为实义动词

do +主语

省去主语的祈使句

will you?

Let's 开头的祈使句

Shall we?

Let us 开头的祈使句

Will you?

there be

相应的谓语动词+there (省略主语代词)

否定前缀不能视为否定词

仍用否定形式

must表"推测"

根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句

 

1. Be sure to write to us, _________?  

 A. will you     B. aren’t you   C. can you      D. mustn’t you

2. --- Alice, you feed the bird today, _________?

--- But I fed it yesterday.   

 A. do you         B. will you  C. didn’t you  D. don’t you

3. The news that they failed their driving test discouraged him, ____? (2000 上海)

A. did they         B. didn’t they    C. did it     D. didn’t it

4. I don’t suppose anyone will volunteer, _________?  

A. do I   B. don’t I       C. will they  D. won’t they

5. Mrs. Black doesn’t believe her son is able to design a digital camera, _____?

A. is he   B. isn’t he       C. doesn’t she D. does she

6. Brian told you that there wasn’t anyone in the room at that time, ______? (02 上海春季)     A. was there B. wasn’t there       C. didn’t he    D. did he

7. Bill’s aim is to inform the viewers that cigarette advertising on TV is illegal, _____? (04上海)   A. isn’t it     B. is it       C. isn’t be    D. is he

8. There is no light in the dormitory. They must have gone to the lecture, _______?

A. didn't they   B. don' t they   C. mustn't they   D. haven' t they

9. There was a loud scream from the backstage immediately after the concert ended, ______ ?   A. wasn’t there                B. was there              C. didn’t it             D. did it

10. He never said that he was good at mathematics, ______ ?(05北京春季)

  A. was he    B. wasn’t he C. did he        D. didn’t he

Answers:   1-10   ABDCDCADAC

 

三、否定句

 

1. not…and; not…or; not…nor, neither…nor

      It’s not tall and wide. (部分否定)

      It’s not tall or wide.    (全部否定)

      Not a flower nor a grass will grow in this  area.  (全部否定)

2. no; not

     ● no     - adv.   -adj.    = not a , not any

         Sorry, there’s no time to talk.

     ●  not       -adv.

         Ask him, not his wife.

         I can see you tomorrow, but not on Tuesday or Friday.

         He failed not because he isn’t clever but because

                he didn’t work hard.

3. no more (not …any more);

    no longer (not any longer)

       Time lost will return no more. (动作的重复次数)

       He doesn’t work here any longer.(动作的延续)

4. no; none; no one :     

   no 是一个限定词,用在单数(可数或不可数)名词和复数名词前面,也就是说一个名词前面没有冠词、物主代词或者代词的时候,才可以用它; 而在the , my, your, this, these, that等词前面,应该使用none of, none, 可指人或物, 而no one指人

    There were no letters for you this morning, I’m afraid.

    None of my friends live near here.

    I stayed in all evening waiting, but no one came.

  ☆ A little money is better than       at all.     (none)

      I wanted two tickets, but there was       left. (none)

      There is       telling when he will be back.  (no)

      --Who is in the room ?    --        . (No one)

5.否定转移: 下列词后接从句,如果否定,否定词前移,

    但hope 例外, think, believe, expect, suppose

     I don’t think that he will come.

     I hope that it won’t rain.

6.避免否定误用

     He asked me a second question before

      I     answer the first one.    A. could  B. couldn’t

7.Nothing is + 比较级+ than to + V. Nothing is + more + 形容词 + than to + V.

例句:没有比接受教育更重要的事了。

 Nothing is more important than to receive education.

8. 。。。cannot emphasize the importance of 。。。 too much. 

 (再怎么强调... ...的重要性也不为过。) 

例句:我们再怎么强调保护眼睛的重要性也不为过。

         We cannot emphasize the importance of protecting our eyes too much.

 

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