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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

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高考英语语法最后30天精--- 倒装  

2009-10-15 13:56:50|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高考英语语法最后30天精--- 倒装 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 倒装:

四、 ◇ 全部倒装

   1.由here, there引起,谓语通常用 be, come, go

       Look ! Here comes your sister.     There goes the bell.

 2. 由介词短语引起,谓语通常用be, stand, lie, live, live, sit, come, go, rise

       Along the wall stand four big chairs.

       At the top of the hill lay the dying soldiers.

 3. 由up, down, on, in, off, away, out, back引起,谓语通常用come, go, run, rush, fly

        Out rushed the boy.

        Down came the rain and up went the umbrellas.

 4.以上情况主语如果是代词,主谓不倒装

         Here’s your watch.    (Here it is.)

         Up it went.

 5.由个别副词引起,谓语通常是be, lie

         North of the city lies (is) a railway.

6. 由such引起, 谓语通常用be

        Such is what he said.           Such are his words.

 

◇部分倒装

 

    指谓语的一部分放在主语之前而引起的倒装,通常是助动词或情态动词提前或连系动词提前

   1. 由never, hardly, seldom, little, not until引起

       Seldom did he make any mistakes.

       Not until yesterday did I receive his letter.

 2. not only…but also连接两个单句时,前面的倒装

       Not only was she working hard, but also she was very polite.

 3. neither…nor连接两个单句时,两个句子都倒装

       Neither is he studying, nor is he working.

 4. no sooner…than, hardly (scarcely)…when

       No sooner had we got into the room than the telephone rang.

5. 由only + 状语, so + adj. (adv.) 引起

   Only then (Only at the age of 18) did he realize the importance of the problem.

6. 由as引起

        Child as he is, he can work out the problem.

7. 虚拟语气的倒装

         Were I you, I would work harder.

         Had you come yesterday, you would have known that.

         Should it rain tomorrow, you wouldn’t leave.

 

◇ so (neither, nor) + be (do, have, 情态动词,助动词)+ 主语

 

         You should work harder and so should I.

         She hasn’t been to Berlin and nor have I.

           --I went to the zoo yesterday.    --So you did.

           --She is a tailor.    --So is she. / So she is.

 

 

五、祈使句

 

1. do强调祈使句

         Do have another cup of coffee.

2. And可连接两个祈使句

         Wait and see.

         Come and see this goldfish.

         Try and (to) see his point of view.

3. 祈使句 + and (or) + 简单句

         Hurry up, or you’ll be late.

              (If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late.)

         Use your head, and you’ll find a good way.

              (If you use your head, you’ll find a good way.)

4.对祈使句的回答

           -- Drive carefully!      -- (Yes,) I will.

           -- Don’t take any risk.    -- (No,) I won’t.

 

 

六、感叹句

 

 

1.             adj.  (Subj. + be )             How lovely !

      How       adv. (Subj.  + v.)             How well you sing !

                 subj. +v.                     How you work !

                 adj. + a (an) + n.              How good a map it is!

 

2.            a (an)  (+ adj.) + n.        What a rude man !

                       (+ adj.) + n. (可数名词复数)

         What    What lovely flowers !

                       ( + adj.) + n. (不可数名词)

                            What fine weather !    

七、省略与替代

 

Ⅰ、动词不定式中的省略

       1.在下列动词see ,watch ,notice , observe , look at , make , have ,let , hear , listen to , feel等后的不定式做宾补,要省略不定式符号。

       2.在...do nothing but / except do ...的结构中,在介词but或except后作宾语时不定式符号要省略。

       3.在would rather和had better后不定式符号要省略。

       4.在几个不定式并列时,第二个、第三个不定式的不定式符号要省略。

       5.在expect ,forget , like ,want , wish , try , have , need , used , ought , be able ,

    be going 等动词和动词词组后接的不定式中,不定式符号后面的动词原形常省略。

 

Ⅱ、从句中的省略。

                                                                

    1.在if , as if ,while , when , where , although , unless , what , whether等引起的状语从句中可以省略主谓部分。

Mistakes, if any ,should be corrected .( = if there are any mistakes)

Please come again ,if possible.(= if it possible for you to come)

Fill in the proper articles where necessary.(= where they are necessary)

He won’t come ,unless invited .(= unless he is invited)

He opened his lips as if to say something .(= as if he were going to say something)

   2.  在if引起的从句中如有等词倒装时,省略if。       

Were I you, I would not do it.

Had we known your telephone number, I would have given you a phone call.

3.  We have finished our homework, so have they. (= and they have finished their homework , too)

     If you don't go to the concert, neither shall I.  (= I shall not go to the concert either)

4.宾语从句中连词that引起的宾语从句和定语从句中的关系代词that、which,whom等

  在定语从句中作宾与可以省略that。

 

Ⅲ、介词的省略

 

   prevent sb (from) doing sth.      stop sb (from) doing sth. 

 have trouble / difficulty (in) doing sth.                           

spend time / money (in) doing sth.        be busy (in) doing sth.        

 

Ⅳ、替代:

 

省略与代替的作用是什么?

1.so代替前面句子中已经表达过的词,短语或句子(多是宾与从句). 与so 连用的常用动词有:

hope , believe,  think ,  be afraid ,  expect ,  surprise,  imagine等.

2.用not代替so的情况. 

3.用不定式符号代替不定式.                               

4.用do在句子中代替其它动词.

 

 

EXERCISES

1.—What about having a drink ?      --         . A. Go ahead, please. 

 B. Help yourself.     C. Good idea.           D. Me, too.

2.—Waiter !     --       .      --I can’t eat this. It’s too salty.         

A. Yes, sir?     B. What?       C. All right       D. Pardon ?

3.—You haven’t been to Beijing ,have you ?     --      . How I wish to go there !         A. Yes, I have       B. No, I haven’t     C. No, I have     D. Yes, I haven’t

4.      it with me and I’ll see what I can do.    A. When left        

 B. Leaving     C. If you leave          D. Leave

5. It was only when I received his poems recently       I began to appreciate their beauty.    A. until    B. then    C. that    D. so

6. –-I believe we’ve met somewhere before.     --No,       .       

 A. it isn’t the same           B. it can’t be true                       

    C. I don’t think so            D. I’d rather not

7.Not until I began to work      how much time I had wasted.      

A. didn’t I realize           B. did I realize

 C. I  didn’t realize           D. I realized

8.– Alice, you feed the bird today,       ?   -- But I fed it yesterday.

 A. do you        B. will you     C. didn’t you      D. don’t you

9. –I just heard that the tickets for tonight’s show have been sold out.       

  --Oh no !        . 

 A. I was looking forward to that  B. It doesn’t matter    C. I knew it already    D. It’s not at all interesting

10. It was for this reason    her uncle moved out of New York and settled down in a small village.     

A. which  B. why  C. that  D. how

11. Only when the war was over     to his hometown.               

     A. did the young soldier return    B. the young soldier returned      

 C. returned the young soldier     D. the young soldier did return

12.     is no possibility     Bob can win the first prize in the match.  

 A. There, that    B. It, that   C. There, whether   D. It, whether

13. –Let’s go swimming, shall we ?   --       .      A. It’s my pleasure 

B. It doesn’t matter      C. Yes, let’s go      D. I agree with you

14. -- I enjoyed the food very much.     -- I’m glad you like it. Please drop in any time you like.     --         .

     A. Is it all right          B. I’m afraid I won’t be free.                    

  C. Yes, I will            D. That’s great

15.– Write to me when you get home.   --       .                       

 A. I must      B. I should           C. I will       D. I can

16. – I’m afraid I can’t finish the book within this week.   --        .

A. Please go ahead               B. That’s tight

C. Not at all.                    D. Take your time

17.– Hello, may I have an appointment with the doctor?  --       .   

A. Sorry, he is busy at the moment      B. Why didn’t you call earlier?

 C.Certainly. May  I know your name?  D. Sorry, he doesn’t want  to see you

18. What a pity my new computer doesn’t work.        must be something wrong with it.      

 A. It    B. There   C. This    D. That

19. One more week,        we will accomplish the task.           

        A. or           B. so that          C. and       D. if

20. -- It was careless of you to have left your clothes outside all night.    

 -- My god!      .      A. So did I     B. So  I did   

 C. So were you     D. So did you

21.-- My daughter has passed the exam.  

 -- Congratulations ! She’s really intelligent.      --        .   

 A. No, no, she is nothing            B. Oh, thank you!

 C. Sometimes she is intelligent       D. You are right

22.– Would you rather come on Friday or Saturday?    --       .     

 A. Yes, of course.             B. The other is better

 C. What’s the matter ?          D. Either would suit me.

23.– You forgot to feed the cat again ?     --     .  

     A. I can’t remember.           B. I don’t mind feeding her again.   

     C. I’ll do it now.              D. Yes, I did. What about you?

24.– Would you like to go to the Grand Theater with me tonight?   --      .  

     A. No, I wouldn’t          B. That’s all right         

     C. Yes, I would like to go to the Grand Theater with you tonight  

   D. I’d love to, but I have an exam tomorrow.

25. –Jane: Tom, let me introduce you to Lucy.    -- Tom:       .      -- Lucy: Hi, I’m Lucy Lee.       

  A. What’s your name    B. Hello     C. Nice to see you.       

D. Sorry, not right now.

26.– Mum, I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding !     --    .     A. Let me see  

B. Don’t  worry     C. Be careful     D. Let me have a  look

27.      can you expect to get a pay rise.     A. Although work hard

     B.With hard work    C.Only with hard work    D.Now that he works

1-10 CABDC CBBAC   11-20 AACCC DCBCB   21-27  BDCDB DC

 

从     句

 

从句的基本构成形式

 

一、(引导从句的)关联词  +   陈述句

 

常见的关联词:

 

1、引导多种从句的常见关联词:

what , when, where, who,  which, why, how,  that, as, since, whether, which, whatever, whenever, if, etc.

2、引导一种从句(常为状语从句)的常见关联词:

until, till, after, before, than, so long as,  as far  as,  as soon as,  the moment,  every time, each time, as if,  now that,  even if(thought),  by the time, in order that,  as…as,   once,  in case,  immediately, how long, etc.

 

 

二、主语从句

    主语从句三要素:   1、关联词不能省略   2、谓语动词用单数

3、从句用陈述语序

常见引导词

what,  when, where,which,  who,  that,whether, how ,whatever,  whoever

 

Whether it will do us harm or good remains to be seen.

I don’t  think  that whatever happens is right.

Is what you told me really true?

    NOTICE:  What we need most are books.

三、表语从句

 

1、关联词不能省略       2、从句用陈述语序

 

常见引导词

what,  when, where, why, whether, how, that, because, which,

 

What  surprised me most was that he spoke English so well.

The question is how what you’ve said can be put into practice.

The reason (why ) he didn’t  come is that he was ill.

     It (This , That) is because iron contains more carbon than steel.

 

 

四、同位语从句

 

1、关联词不能省略      2、从句用陈述语序

 

从句的名词后接同位语

fact, idea,  word,promise, saying,problem,  news

常见引导词

that,  whether,  where,  how,  etc.

 

The facts that he succeeded in the experiment pleased us.

An idea came to her that she might do that in another way.

Scientists have argued over the problem whether there is life on other planets.

 

五、宾语从句

 

1.从句用陈述语序

 

Parents  generally buy whichever books their children want.

Free movie tickets will be given to whoever comes first.

I realized that what I said was not exactly what I meant to say.

I once read that “The beauty of life is its changes “ and that “The art of life lies in a constant readjustment(适应)to  our surroundings.”

Sleep-teaching will only hammer into(强硬灌输)your head what  you have studied already while you are awake.

 2 .  it可做形式宾语代替饱雨从句

     We all thought it a pity that he didn’t come.

 

六、名词性从句的综合问题

 

1、whether    if

If 只能引导宾语从句,不能引导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句

The question is whether it is worth doing

 

2、which ,what 不能引导同位语从句

  3、whatever, whichever, whoever可以引导名词性从句,“一切,任何,无论”

       Whoever telephones, tell them I’m out.

       Whatever problem you have, you can always come to me for help.

       Whichever day you come, we’ll be pleased to se you.

 

七、What-clause

 

1what  =  something that /which(即含内容

2、可以引导主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句

3、在从句中担当主语、宾语、表语、定语

Show me what you have written.

He is not what he was a few years ago.

FIU has opened (that ) what it says is the first computer art in the US.

What matters most is good health.

What money I have has been given to you.

    4.引导插入语

He is handsome, and what is more, very rich,

 

_____ was most important to her, she told me, was her family.

         A. It    B. This    C. What    D. As   (08山东)C  此题考查主语从句连词的选择。此题的关键在于看出she told me是插入语,从结构上不影响整个句子的表达。根据题意“她告诉我,对她来说最重要的是她的家庭”可知,第二个was 是整个句子的谓语动词。所选词须是连词用来引导主语从句。故可排除A,B。as不能引导主语从句,也可排除。what引导名词性从句在从句中做主语。

 

八、状语从句

 

 状语从句

引导从句的连词

 备  注

 

时间

after, as, before, once, since, till, until,

when, whenever, while, as long as,

as soon as, hardly(scarcely) … when,

No sooner … than, the time (moment, instant, minute, day…)

hardly, no sooner在句首,引导的从句

  要部分倒装.

since引导的从句注意看启动词是否是

 瞬间动词还是延续性动词.

when 引导的从句注意其特殊用法.

一些名词也可以引导时间状语从句.

地点

where ,  wherever

后者表示强调.

方式

as,  as if,  as though,

as引导的方式状语从句多在句首.

原因

 because,  since,  as,  now (that)

 

语气一个比一个弱.for可以引导原因状语从句,但它只能位于句末.

结果

so …that,   such (a)… that, 

so that,    that

so…that中的so在句首,主句要部分倒装.

目的

so that, in order that, that, so,

so that 使用最普遍.

条件

if , unless, in case , as long as,

注意分清if从句中是否该用虚拟语气.

让步

 

though, although, even if, even though,

as, in spite of the fact, while,

no matter wh- ,

as 引导的让步状语从句要倒装.

 

常 见 引 导 词:

 

时间   when,  while,  as,  as soon as, whenever,  after,  before,  until, till, once, since,  by the time, the moment

地点   where,  wherever, anywhere

原因   because,  as,  since,   now that

条件   if,  as / so long as,  unless, on  condition (that)

方式   as, in the way (that), as if

让步   though, although, as, even if, no matter when / how / where

比较   than,  as…as

目的,结果  so…that,  in order that

 

1. when;    while;   as;    whenever

   ◇ when 

 

       从句  ∣    ●    ————        (●     点动作,瞬间动作)

————∣————————————

   主句  ∣    ●    ————        (——   段动作,延续动作)

 I’ll speak to him when he arrives.

   When (While , As) he stayed there, he began to study German.

 

while

 

       从句  ∣          ————        

————∣————————————

   主句  ∣    ●    ————      

While (When) we were in Paris, we saw him twice.

The doorbell rang while (when) we were watching TV.

as

  

从句  ∣       ————        

————∣——————————     (多表示主从句动作同时进行)

   主句  ∣       ————      

 She  sang as she did her homework.

 As his brother was going out, it  began to rain.

 

 whenever(无论何时)

    Whenever you (may) call(看她), you’ll find her sitting by the window.

  ★ when表示并列(just at that time),用在句子中部

     I am going out (I am about to go out) when the phone rings.

  ★ 两个短动作同时发生用as,或 just as,有时也用 when,长动作同时发生用 while

       I thought of it just as you opened your mouth.

       He stood quietly while the guards searched his clothes.

  ★ while 可表示对比转折

       She is in red while her sister is in yellow.

  ★ while 还可表示“趁......时”

       We should go and look at the monkeys while they are still there.

  ★ while 表示“尽管,虽然”(多放在句首)

       While they are my neighbours, I don’t know the well.

  ★ while 表示“只要”

        While there is life ther is hope.

  ★ as 表示两种发展或变化的情况,“随着......”

       As it grew, it became loder.

  ★ when 引导的从句,用一般时态表示未来的事情

       Come to me when you like.

   

2. till (until);   not …till(until)

1).肯定

主句谓语动词是延续动词,表达动作或状态持续“到……为止”(即:主句动作或状态到until或 till表达的时间结束)

 

从句  ∣           until / till

————∣————————∣——    

  主句  ∣          ----→∣(结束)

 

We’ll stay  here till it stops raining.

 

2).否定

主句谓语动词是短暂动词,表达动作或状态“直到……才开始”(即:主句动作或状态到until或till表达的时间才开始做

 

 

从句  ∣ until / till

————∣—————∣————    

  主句 ∣  (开始)∣-→

He didn’t leave the office until his boss came.

 

倒装:

Not until he saw his mother did  the little boy smile.

强调:

It was  not until he say his mother that the boy smiled.

 

3.by the time, next time,every time, each time,

the day, the week,etc.

Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.

The day he returned , his father was already dead.

                   they  arrived, we had already left.

By the time

                   they  arrive, we will have already left.

 

4.as soon as, the moment, on doing, no sooner…than , hardly…when

           As soon as I saw him  I knew there was no hope

      →   The moment (that) I saw him I knew there was no hope.

      →   On seeing him  I knew there was no hope.

      →   No sooner had I seen him than I knew there was no hope.

 

5. where,   wherever

A driver should slow down where there are schools.

对比:

He will work in the factory where we need hm most. (定从)

He will work where we need him most.                     (状从)

(定语从句前必有被修饰的地点名词,而状语从句前没有)

Wherever he happens to be,  Clint  can make  himself at home.

   

6. because,  for, as ,  since

     ◇ because 表示产生某种结果的直接的必然的原因;

     ◇ for 用来补充说明理由,不放在句首,“倒果为因”

                       because the sun has risen.

       The day breaks

                       for the birds are singsing.

Because  it rained last night,the ground is wet  this morning.

It rained last night, for the ground is wet  this morning.  

     ◇ since 原因是人们已知的,以既知事实说明理由“既然……就”

        Since you can’t answer the question,we’d better ask someone else.

◇as 原因、理由比较明显,语气比较弱,“由于……”

As I am ill, I won't go.

 

介词表示因果:

We had an accident because of his carelessness.

We had an accident due to his carelessness.    (由于、归于)

Owing to his carelessness we had an accident.  (由于)

Thanks to John’s kind help, we finished early.

 

7. so that,so as to do ;  in order that, in order to do  (目的)

We climbed high (so) that we might get a better view.

We climbed high so as to get a better view.

 

I spoke slowly in order that the audience could understand me.

I spoke slowly in order for the audience to understand me.

 

        get a better view, we climbed.

A. In order   B.In order to   C.So as   D.So as to

 

8. so …that,   such…that,  such that (结果)

The  house  is  so  expensive  

     This is such an expensive house  

     This is  so expensive a  house       that I can’t afford to buy it.

So  expensive  is  the  house   

Such an expensive house is this  

 

比较

so as to do sth: “以便”,表示目的;

so/such…as to do sth: “如此…以致于”,表示结果;

Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby.

He was so foolish as to believe her.

He was such a fool as to believe her.

 

9.though,although,as,

1) 句首常用although,而though较为普遍

2)though, as可以倒装

Young as(though) he is,he is knowledgeable.

Try as(though) he might,he couldn’t get out.

    3)though:  可用在句尾,表示“然而”

         It was hard work; I enjoyed it, though.

    4) 介词表示让步 (in spite of, despite)

In spite of the heavy rain, she went to the shop.

5) although /though 不和 but连用,但可用yet/still

   

10 . than等

 

表示倍数

                    longer  than

A is three times     as long as            than B.

                    the length of

 

◇  no more…than

You are no taller than he. = You are not tall and he is not tall, either.

 

11.if  so,  if  not,  if  only

1)if  so 用来代替完整的句子

   Have you  got a free evening next week? If so,let’s have dinner.

2)if  not用来代替完整的句子

   Is anybody feeling cold?  If not, let’s open the window.

3)if  only后常用过去时或过去完成时,可以表达强烈的愿望或遗憾

       If only I knew what you wanted !

       If only you hadn’t told him what I said,everything would have been all right.

 

12.as soon as, as(so) far as, as long as, as well as 各有两种情况

◇ as soon as

① Finish it as soon as you can (possible).

② The students were quiet as soon as the teacher came in

    ◇ as (so) far as

① You’d better walk as far as the foot of the hill. (远至)

② As far as I know, he is a good doctor.    (就……而言)

◇  as (so) long as

① You can stay as long as you like.       (长达)

② So long as you need me, I’ll stay.      (只要)

◇ as well as

① She cooks as well as her mother (does). (一样好)

② She sings as well we he plays.  (不但弹得好而且唱得好)

      She sings as well as playing the piano.   (重点在前面)

 

13.状语从句的其它几个问题:

   1)省略:

◇ 主从句主语一致时;

◇ 从句主谓语是it  is(was)时;

◇ 常用词:when, while, if, until, after, until, although, than, etc.

◇ 基本结构:从属连词+adj. /n. / -ing/ -ed

When a student in the university,he read a lot.

Though tired, he wouldn’t stop working.

Since coming to Paris,I have made many new friends.

If not necessary, you’d  better leave  tomorrow .

   2)in case  ◇万一......的话,在......的情况下; ◇以防,免得

       In case anything important happens, please call me up.

       Take a taxi  in case you are late for the meeting.

   3) no matter what (who, when, where...) 引导状语从句,可相当于whatever, whoever, whenever…,但前者不能引导名词性从句

        No matter what happened,he would not say a word.

        She was going to be a singer no matter what difficulties she met.

        No matter what you do don’t touch the switch.

        I’ve decided to leave tomorrow, no matter what.

          Talk to me about whatever is troubling you .

          Whatever she says goes.

          I’ll just say whatever comes into my head.

          After all, whatever her faults ( are, 省略), she’s Tommy’s mother.

          Use the simple whenever (it’s) possible.

          While she did most of the cooking, her daughter was of some

help, however small.

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