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高考英语语法最后30天精讲精练---名词、数词、冠词  

2009-10-14 12:23:43|  分类: 英语语法 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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高考英语语法最后30天精讲精练---名词、数词、冠词 - 紫霞仙客 - 紫霞仙客的博客

 

名词、数词、冠词

 

一、名词

1、在句子里使用名词应注意的问题:

名词的数:单数、复数和不可数;

名词的格:通格和属格  (’s )

名词的限定:特指、泛指、数量和习惯用法,即名词前加冠词或

         其它限定词, 例如: some, many , this, my 等

2、名词的数和单位词:

1)复型名词 + 复数动词

      The trousers are too big for me. Please show  me the smaller pair.

    备用词: shoes, stockings,  glasses,  socks

             NOTICE:   A pair of glasses  costs  quite a lot.

2)复型名词 + 单数动词

        A. The news on TV  is  seldom satisfying.

      备用词:mathematics, physics, politics, means, works, the United States

        B. Twenty miles  is  a long way to walk.

      备用词: five pounds, two feet, six weeks

3) 集合名词 + 复数名词

     The police  have  surrounded the building.

     Cattle  are  selling for record price (创记录).

备用词: the enemy,  (the) people

     NOTICE:   表示由若干人组成的集合体的单数词常可作复数用,

但若把这个集合体看作整体就用作单数:

      My family  are  wonderful. They do all they can for me.

      The family  which now  consists  of four members at most  is

                smaller  than it used to be.

4)不可数名词作可数的情况

A. 部分不可数名词可以有下列情况     

 a (an)  +  adj.  + n.

        It looks like rain.        a thirsty for knowledge(求知欲)     

        a heavy rain            He has a good knowledge of politics.

      备用词: snow, breakfast, wine, oil, education

    B.口语特例(特定场合)

          A (One) beer, please.

          Two teas and four coffees, please.

5)既是可数又是不可数的名词

    I broke a glass this morning.  (杯子)

    Glass is made from sand.   (玻璃)

     备用词: paper / a paper,  light(光) / a light(灯);

            ice(冰) / an ice (冰激凌), chicken(鸡肉) / a chicken (雏鸡)

6) 单位词

A.个数

         a piece of information (furniture, advice…)

B. 以形状表示个数

         a grain of rice,  a flight of stairs

C. 容量

         a box of matches, a cup of tea

D. 计量

         a metre of cloth,  a ton of coal

E.其它

         a (new) set of tools (wires, teeth, rules)

 

3、名词的格:

   1)’ s 的用法

     A . 与时间有关的名词

            a nights sleep               ten minutes walk

         NOTICE:    a  two-hour  walk  =  two hours’walk

     B. else 连用

                 book can this be?      A. Who  else’s   B. Whose else

            C. Who’s else     D. Whose else’s         (A)

     C. ‘s 修饰的词,如果前面提到,可省略

          This is Jack’s book, not  Tom’s. 

This book is Jack’s not Tom’s.

     D. 表示店、铺、家、诊所等, ‘s 后面的名词省略

       at the Green’s  (house),      at the doctor’s  (office)

 

2) OF 结构表示所有关系

     A. 无生命的名词用of

           the price of the success

     B. 有生命的名词被一个短语或从句修饰而表示所有关系时用of

           Can’t you look at the book of the boy behind you?

 

3)双重所有格

      ‘s 与of结构并用,此时of结构所修饰的名词前通常有a, an, two, some, that等

        Miss Smith is a friend of Mary’s mother’s.

        that brother of the girl

 

4)名词 + 名词 (名词用作形容词)

        A. 单数名词+名词  a shoe (flower) shop    ticket  office

                  NOTICE: the tailor’s  (shop)

        B. 复数名词 + 名词

        sports meet      clothes shop    women pilots

        

二、数词

 

1、数词在使用时应注意的问题:

l         易错数词:

l        年月日及介词

l        计算用词

l        和数字相关的词

 

2、综合

   1) 数字表达:   123,856,709 

           one hundred and twenty-three million, eight  hundred and

           fifty-six thousand, seven hundred and nine

    2) 年月日         in the morning; on the  morning of   September 1;

in  September;  in 1988;  on September 1 (on the first of September)  

 

3、计算

+    Six  and five  is (are) eleven.

          Six hundred plus forty is (equals)  six hundred and forty.

-    Four  from seven is (leaves) three.

          Six hundred minus one hundred equals five hundred.

X       16 x 11 = 176

          Sixteen times eleven is (makes) one hundred and seventy-six.

÷      9 ÷ 3 = 3

          Nine divided by three equals three.

 

4、dozen, score

      A.  three dozen eggs;  three dozen of these eggs;  dozens of eggs

B.  three score years;  a (three) score of people;  scores of times

 

5、小数,分数,百分比引导的短语作主语时的主谓一致问题.

分数和百分数引导的短语作主语,其谓语动词的数应根据分数和百分数后面的名词来确定.如果是可数名词的复数,其谓语动词用复数形式;如果是不可数名词或单数可数名词其谓语动词用单数形式.

  More than 40 percent of the students wear glasses.

  70 percent od the fund(资金) was supplied by the Government.

 

6、“一个半...”的表达法.  

 one pound and a half ,one and a half years

 

三、冠词

 

1、冠词应注意的问题

l        习惯用法

l        同一名词前不同名词的比较

 

2、不定冠词

1) 成对的名词(此类名词间常有一种自然的联系) 

 a knife and fork

    2) a most + n. “非常“     This is a most beautiful country.

    3) a (an) 与 one 之区别    

       A.    数字对比用one            It was one coffee we ordered, not two.

       B.    对比  A knife is no good.    (刀子不行)

              One knife is no good.  (一把刀子不行)

     C.    通用 a (one) million,      a (one) quarter

    4) a (an) 与every 之比较:    three times a year;    twice every three years

    5) 惯用法    A.    What a surprise !      What a lovely dress !

                        quite a nice day     rather a good idea     

                        such a funny expression

                 B.    too cold a day           How lovely a dress!

                       so strange a person       as good a map as

 

3、定冠词

    1)普通名词组成的专有名词     the Great  Wall     the Summer  Palace

    2)江河、海洋、山脉、群岛、海峡、海湾          the Pacific (Ocean)

3)the + adj. (-ing; -ed)   

 A. 指一类人,谓语用复数

          The old are being taken good care of.

       B. 指一类事,谓语用单数

          The beautiful is not always the same as the good.

    4)用在radio, piano, telephone, 方位、次序、自然现象(rain)、身体

          部位前           He hates the telephone.

    5)被定语从句、介词短语、副词短语、不定式短语等修饰的名词前

           The boy who you are looking for (in blue, there, standing there,

            dressed in blue ) is a student.

 

4、零冠词

1)街道、广场、节假日、季节、月份、星期、棋类、球类等

              National Day                 Nanjing Road

2)职位充当补语、同位语时

               He was elected headmaster of the school.

3)成对出现的成语

      arm in arm (手挽手),     hand in hand (手牵手),      face to face,

      side by side(肩并肩),     day and night,        young and old,

      from door to door,     from morning till night,     from beginning to end

 

5、冠词比较

1)       go to school (hospital, church); in prison (强调用途)

      go to the school,   visit the prison  (强调建筑物本身)

2)  I’ll go there next Friday.    (以说话时间为准)

       In 1989, he was 28, and the next year, he was 29.  (以所给时间为准)

3) by air (plane, boat…)          in a spaceship ( on the bike, on the bus)

4) Open the window to let in fresh air.   (泛指)

     The air in the room is not fresh.      (特指)

5) be at table                 be at the table

6) a cup of coffee           Two coffees, please.       I like white coffee.

     This is a very good coffee.          The coffee on the table is Tom’s.

7) Mr.  White is waiting to see you.        A Mr. White is waiting to see you.

    The Mr. White you are looking for is waiting to see you.

8) A horse is a useful  animal.      The horse is a useful animal.

    Horses are useful animals.

9) the best season of the year          the best time of year

 

EXERCISES 1 (单选)

 

  1. ---I’d like        information about the management of your hotel, please.

      ---Well, you could have       word with the manager. He might be helpful.

       A. some, a        B. an,  some       C. some, some       D. an, a  

2. If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to have a          .

       A. message      B. letter       C. sentence       D. notice

3. He dropped the         and broke it.         A. cup of coffee

       B. coffee’s cup        C. cup for coffee       D. coffee cup

4. There are only twelve         in the hospital.          A. woman doctors

       B. women doctors        C. women doctor       D. woman doctor

5. ---How many         does a cow have?         ---Four.

       A. stomaches     B. stomach     C. stomachs     D.stomachines

6. The     of the building are covered with lots of        .       (AADBCA)

      A. roofs, leaves     B.rooves, leafs       C. roof, leaf      D.roofs, leafs

7.That was a fifty         engine.         A. horse power

     B. horses power         C. horse powers         D. horses powers

8. ---How far away is it from here to your school?     ---It’s about         .

     A. half an hour’s drive                    B. half hours drives

     C. half an hour drives                      D. half an hour drive

9. Last week I called at my       .   

       A. aunt    B. aunts    C. aunt’s   D. aunts’s

10. You’ll find this map of great         in helping you to get round London.

        A. price         B. cost          C. usefulness        D. value

11. Alexander Graham Bell invented          telephone in 1876.

        A.不填         B. a         C. the          D.one

12. ---Where’s Jack ?       ---I think he’s still in       bed but he might just be  in         bathroom.        A.不填, 不填     B. the, the

       C. the, 不填           D. 不填, the             (AACDCD)

13. Many people are still in         habit of writing silly things in        public  places.      A. the, the     B. 不填,不填    

 C. the, 不填     D.不填, the

14.She is       newcomer to        chemistry bust she has already made some

       important discoveries. 

 A. the, the   B. the, 不填    C. a, 不填    D. a, the

15. ---Have you seen       pen?  I left it here this morning.

      ---Is it        black one? I think I saw it somewhere.

       A. a, the         B. the, the        C. a, a       D. the, a

16. Paper money was in        use in China when Marco Polo visited the

      country in       thirteenth centry.

       A. the, 不填      B. 不填, the    C. the, the    D. 不填, 不填

17.The warmth of       sweater will of course be determined by the sort of       

    wool used. 

 A. the, the     B. the, 不填     C. 不填, the     D.不填, 不填

18.Summers in       south of France are for       most part dry and sunny.

      A. 不填, a       B. the, 不填       C. 不填, 不填     D. the, the   (CCCBBD)

19. A rough estimate, Nigeria is__________ Great Britain. (05上海卷) ( D)

A. three times the size as          B. the size three times of

C. three times as the size of      D. three times the size of 

20. He proved himself a true gentleman and the beauty of his _______ was seen at its best when he worked with others. (05上海卷) (D)

A. temper          B. appearance C. talent     D. character

21. I am sure David will be able to find the library — he has a pretty good _______ of  direction. (05浙江卷)(D)

A.idea        B.feeling C.experience         D.sense

22. Bill was doing a lot of physical exercise to build up his_______. 

(05天津卷) (C)

A. ability       B. force          C. strength       D. mind

23.My ______ of this weekend’s activity is going out with some good friends. (05安徽卷) (A)

A. idea       B. opinion      C. mind       D. thought

24.The head office of the bank is in Beijing, but it has ____ all over the country. (05辽宁卷) (B)

A.companies      B.branches        C.organizations    D.businesses

25. It took us quite a long time to get here. It was ______ journey.(05北京春)(C)

A. three-hour    B. a three hour     C. a three-hour    D. three hours

26.Students should be encouraged to use ___ Internet as ____ resource.

(08山东) A. 不填;a    B. 不填;the   C. the; the   D. the; a

             D the internet 表示一类事物,a resource表示是资源的一种。

 

EXERCISES  2   (改错,每句一个错)

 

  1. After one year hard work, the  Senior Three students have already pre-

     pared themselves for the entrance exam.            ( year’s)

2. More and more middle-aged people in the West have heart’s trouble,

     which results from high-fat food they like to eat.     (heart)

3. You can get your library card in the teacher reading-room, which is on the

     second floor.                   (teachers’)

4. His hairs  looked disordered, with some gray hair on his forehead.

                                              (hairs---------第二个)

5.Now I eat more fruits and vegetables than I used to. My favorite fruits are

       apples, bananas and grapes.        (fruit------第一个)

6. The lady entered a room, opened windows to let the fresh air in, and

      sat down in an armchair to have a rest.      ( the windows)

7.Miss Nora is young, nice, kind and active. She is the teacher young

     students like.                 (  a teacher)

8.They elected him the captain of the school football team for a second

       time.                           (captain ,  去掉the )

9.He is fond of playing chess while his sister is fond of playing piano.

                                        ( the piano)

10. No human being can change the law of the nature, though they can

        change their own lives.          (nature, 去掉the)

 

代       词

 

一、人称代词

1、多个人称代词的排列顺序:          

         ①you and I       ②he and I       ③you and he

         ④you, he and I       ⑤you, they and we(情况多)

2、It 的用法

         ① 代替this, that

              That’s  a book, isn’t it ?

         ② 做某动作的人或婴儿

               ---Someone is coming. Who can it be ?

              ---It may be Jack.

                   It’s a lovely baby. Is it a boy or a girl?

         ③表示时间、距离、自然现象 

                  It’s 20 miles to (from) Paris.

3、简略回答中用so, not, it 的情况:

         ①肯定答语中,下列动词后面常用so:

         think, hope, believe, I’m afraid, It seems (appears), etc.

---Is it true that he had a heart attack?

            ---I’m afraid so.   /   I believe so.     /  It seems so.

         ②否定答语中用not:

          ---Has Anne got into university?

           ---I’m afraid not.    /   I think not.    /  It seems not.

         ③协力动词中也可以用notso:

             believe, think, suppose, expect, etc

             I dont believe so.   /   I dont think so.

         ④do代替上下文动词,并且表示一个已完成的动作时,

                    do后常用so / it:

                 ---Please lay the table.

                 ---I’ve just done so (it).

 

二、指示代词

★that, one, it的区别

     ①one 代替可数名词,表示泛指; the one 表示特指; that代替不可数名

     词 ,表示特指; 它们都可以代替前面提到的同一类事物; it指前面提到的

     同一事物。

         ●There is an old engineer and a young one here.

         ●His attitude to me is that of a friend.

         ●I’ve lost my pen. Have you seen it?  (Have you lend me one?)

 ② the / this / that / these / those + adj. + one / ones

         I’ll try on a few of these shirts. Please pass me that white one.

     ③the one后面可以接介词短语或定语从句

        ●The boy in your class is taller than the one in our class.

        ●The skirt (that) she made herself is more beautiful to wear than

           the one (that) she bought last year.

④ one 不能代替前面提到的不可数名词

         Don’t use powdered milk. Use this fresh milk.   (不可用 fresh one)

⑤those , ones

        ● These machines are better than those we made last year.

       ●  ---I’d like a pound of apples.

            ---Which ones?

            ---The red (ones).

       ● ---Why don’t we take a little break ?

          ---Didn’t we just have            ? (NMET2000)

             A. it      B. that       C. one      D. this       (C)  

 

三、物主代词

1、名词性物主代词可作主语、表语、宾语,不能作定语

      This is my cup. Yours is the one that’s green.

      These things are mine. Those are theirs.

2、名词性物主代词与 of 结构连用

       That brother of yours looks healthy.

       He is an old friend of mine.

3、下列结构用 the 代替物主代词

       He pulled Jack by the hair (arm).      

       He was wounded in the leg.

       He was blind in the right eye.

 

四、反身代词

1、加强语气(可前可后)

        The headmaster spoke to me himself.

         →  The headmaster himself spoke to me.

      ● Tom felt that he knew everybody’s business better

            than they knew  it         .

          A. themselves     B. oneself     C. itself      D. himself  

                                             (NMET 1996)      (A)

2、own: 反身代词无所有格形式,用 own 表达:

     I’d love to have my own room / a room of my own.

 

五、不定代词

1、every      each

       ①every指时间:    every other day, 

           every three days  =  every third day

       ②each放在复数主谓语之间: 

           We each have a book.

       ③each放在句尾:   

           She gave her children an apple each.

 

2、some-        any-         every-         no-

       ①作单数看:     Is there anyone here who is a doctor?

       ②不与 of 连用:        不说 someone of;    no one of. etc

                             可说  some one of;    none of, etc.

       ③+ adj. / to do (vt.):   Is there anything for me to sit on ?

       ④+ else:  This isn’t mine. It’s  someone elses.

 

3、some     any

      ①表示请求、建议的问句用some

          Would you like some (more) coffee ?

      ②some + n.(singl.)

          You will realize it some day.

      ③any在肯定句中表示任何一个(无论哪个)

          Any child can answer that.

          Give me a plate. Any one (plate) will do.

     ④any (some)  of  + 限定词 + n.

some of the oil ,       any of my water

 

4、both       all

      ①常用于助动词或情感动词后,但在简答中放在前面

         ● The girls are both ready.

         ● --- Are you ready ?       --- Yes, we both  (all) are.

   ②放在作宾语的宾格代词后面

          He gave some to us all (both).

     ③all单独用,指人时谓语用用复数;指物时谓语用单数

           ●All is lost.               ● All are here.

 

5、either          neither

       ① either…or;    neither…nor 作主语,谓语的使用是邻近原则

          Neither he nor I am going to London.

 ②作定语,修饰单数名词

        Neither (Either) book is satisfactory.

 

6、another        (the) other         (the) others

  ①another  另外的,另一个的

          Please show me another (one).

          Do you need another cup ?

 ②another + 基数词(few) + n.

          I need another three days.   (three more days)

 ③(the) other (+ n.)     (the) other

           the other six (persons)  /  the others  / the other day

 

7、(a) few         (a) little

   ① few 的搭配

         ●We had a good few letter this morning(很多).

         ●Not a few letters were written to the magazines. (不少)

          ● ---How many do you want ? 

             ---Just a few, please. (不多)

                quite a few (相当多) 

                only a few  (只有几个,几乎没有)

 ② little 的搭配

        ●There’s only a little soup left.

         ● ---How much do you want ?   

            ---Just a little, please.

 

8、much     many

  ①(much /far) too much           far too many

         Your son got much (far) too much pocket money.

         There are far too many accidents at this crossing.

      ②much修饰 ●形容词和副词的比较级或最高级 

●比较级+不可数名词

             There’s much / far less water in the river than usual.

       many修饰“比较级 + 可数 名词复数”

            There are many / far more people than I expected.

 

9、全部否定与部分否定

    ①全部否定用词

        neither    nothing     no one     nobody    none

      ②not与all, both, every, every- 连用时表示部分否定

           Not all his work is successful.

 

EXERCISE 1  (单选)

 

1.  I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with            .

      A. everything       B. anything       C. something       D. nothing

2. Sarah has read lots of stories by American writers. Now she would like

    to read           stories by writers from          countries.

     A. some, any       B. other, some     C. some, other     D. other, other

3. I hate        when people talk with their mouths full.

      A. it           B. that            C. these           D. them

4. Dr. Black comes from either Oxford or Cambridge, I can’t remember        .

      A. where         B. there      C. which          D. that

5. ---Are the new rules working ?    ---Yes.         books are stolen.

     A. Few             B. More       C. Some           D. None

6. Few pleasures can equal         of a cool drink on a hot day.

     A. some         B. that             C. any            D. those

7. ---Why don’t we take a little break ?     --- Didn’t we just have           ?

     A. it    B. one    C. that     D. this                 (ACACABB)

8.It is the ability to do the job          matters not where you come from or

   what you are.    A. one      B. what       C. that        D. it

9.The Pakers bought a new house but         will need a lot of work before

    they can move in.    A. they    B. it     C. one       D. which

10. ---Do you want tea or coffee ?      ---        . I really don’t mind.

    A. Both             B. None         C. Either          D. Neither

11.Many people have helped with canned food, however, the food bank

     needs         for the poor.   

A. more    B. much      C. many     D. most

12. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have            .

      A. it             B. there            C. them           D. one

13.---When shall we meet again ?     ---Make it          day you like; it’s all

      the same to me.     A. one      B. any      C. another       D. so

14. If this dictionary is not yours,           can it be ?     

  A. what else    B. who else     C. which else’s    D. who else’s      (CBCADBD)

15.They were all very tired, but         of them would stop to take a rest.

       A. any          B. some           C. none         D. neither

16. John said he’d been working in the office for an hour,          was true.

       A. he         B. this             C. which          D. who

17. It doesn’t matter whether there is only coffee or tea.          will  do.

       A. Any            B. Both         C. Either         D. Neither

18. He had little money, so he didn’t lend me             .

       A. some           B. it             C. much        D. any

19. Money doesn’t mean               .                A. everything

       B. anything              C. any thing           D. something

20. In this small town,           knows           .  

    A. anybody, somebody       B. everybody, nobody    

    C.everybody,every           D.somebody,anybody

                   (CCCDAC)

 

EXERCISE 2    (改错,每句一错)

 

1. Everything is better than nothing.      (Anything is  / Something is)

2. ---What’s on the table?        ---No one.         ( None → Nothing)

    ---How many books are on the table?       ---None.

3. These shirts are expensive, but which we saw the other day were more

     expensive.           (but those we saw)

4. ---Do you have a camera ?

    ---No, but my father has it. He bought it a week ago.      (has one)

5. When it discovers good flowers, a bee flies back to the hive and tells

    others. It does this by dancing for them.     (tells the others)

6. ---I’d like some coffee.

    ---Sorry, there’s nothing at the moment.         (there’s none)

7. ---Here we have noodles, rice, dumplings and so on. What would you

    like ?             --- Everything is OK.          (Anything is OK.)

8. Mary  sends both you her love.    (both of you)

9. Everybody has got two personalities-----the one that is shown to the

    world and another that is secret and real.          (and the other)

10.I was the first person in my family who would attend a university, and I

     knew how proud my parents were, but it was impossible for him to

     finance my education.                     ( for them to…)

 

 

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