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紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

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Unit 2 Working the land3   

2010-01-10 13:01:48|  分类: 高一英语必修4 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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一、日常口语突破  

   建议与应答

   ①—How about going out for a walk after class?下课后出去散步好吗?

—I’d prefer to stay at home because it is raining. 因天下雨,我宁愿呆在家里。

   ②—Would you rather go to the movie tonight with us? 你愿意今晚和我们一起去看电影吗?

—I think I’d better look after my sick father at home. 我想最好还是在家照顾生病的父亲。

二、核心单词例析

1. struggle vi. & vt. 努力,拼搏,斗争

struggle to do sth (=make great efforts to do sth.)努力做某事

…he has struggled for the past five decades to help them.他在过去50年来一直在努力帮助他们。

She struggled to keep back the tears. 她努力忍住泪水。

搭配:struggle for争夺;struggle with /against同……斗争

2. equip vi. & vt. 使(某人)具备条件;装备,配备

(1)equip sb. for/to do sth.使某人具备做某事的条件,使某人能够做某事

Your training will equip you for your future job. 你的训练使得你能够胜任将来的工作。

Your education will equip you to earn a good living. 你受的教育能够使你能谋上好生计。

(2)equip…with…用……装备……

He equipped his bike with a head light. 他给自行车装上了前灯。

We should equip our children with a good education. 我们应让孩子应到良好的教育。

3. confuse vt. 使某人迷惑;把某事搞乱

They confused me by asking so many questions. 他们提了一大堆问题上,把我弄糊涂了。

Her unexpected arrival confused all our plans. 她的突然到来把我们的计划全打乱了。

Don’t confuse Austria with /and Australia. 不要把奥地利和澳大利亚弄混了。

比较:confused感到迷惑的;confusing令人迷惑的

4. reduce vt. 减少, 缩小, 简化

He is trying to reduce expenses. 他正试图减少开支。

We must gradually reduce the wage gap. 我们必须缩小工资差别。

同义:bring down, cut, cut down 降低,削减

5. supply n.& vt. 供应,补给

We have a good supply of water here. 我们这里供水充足。

The water supply to the room failed. 这个房间的供水中断了。

We supply the market with fruits and vegetables. 我们为市场提供水果和蔬菜。

We supply power to the three nearby towns. 我们对附近的三个城镇提供电力。

注:作名词时一般是不可数名词,但有修饰语时可加不定冠词;另外,表示“供应品,日用品”等时常用复数。如medical supplies医疗用品,office supplies办公用品。

6. whatever

(1)引导让步状语从句 (=no matter what)

Whatever you say, I won’t believe you. 无论你说什么,我都不信。

You have to go on, whatever difficulties you meet. 不管你碰到什么困难,你都要继续干。

(2)引导名词性从句[=any (thing) (that)]

Whatever she did was right. 凡是她所做的都是正确的。  

One should stick to whatever one has begun. 应当持之以恒。

真题:The poor young man is ready to accept ______help he can get. (全国)

A. whichever     B. however    C. whatever       D. whenever

解析:因选项B和D不能作定语,应排除;没有选择范围,排除选项A;选C,whatever=any(任何)。

7. export vi. & vt. 输出,出口

We export rice but import wheat. 我们出口稻米,但进口小麦。

Our factory exports to Southeast Asia. 我厂向东南亚出口产品。

8. suitable adj. 合适的,适当的,相配的

This toy is not suitable for young children. 这个玩具不适合小小孩玩。

I don’t think she is suitable for the job. 我认为她不适合这个工作。

This wine is not suitable to my taste. 这酒不合我的胃口。

同义:be suitable for =be fit for适合

三、关键短语精讲

1. born into…family (由于)出生于……的家庭

Born into a poor farmer’s family in 1931…袁博士1931年出生于一个贫苦农民家庭

Born into a poor peasant family, he couldn’t go to college. 由于出生在贫苦农民家庭,他没能上大学。

2. graduate from毕业于

Dr Yuan graduated from Southwest Agriculture College. 袁博士毕业于西南农业大学。

注:表示毕业于某专业,用in。如:

He graduated in law from Oxford. 他毕业于牛津大学法律系。

3. thanks to (=because of) 由于,多亏

Thanks to your help, we were successful. 由于你的帮助,我们成功了。

Thanks to you, I was saved from drowning. 幸亏你,我才没淹死。

4. rid…of…使……摆脱……(讨厌或不想要的)

Thanks to his research, the UN is trying to rid the world of hunger. 由于他的研究,联合国正在使世界摆脱饥饿。

You should rid yourself of that bad habit. 你应改掉那个坏习惯。

5. be satisfied with 对……感到满意/满足

I’m very satisfied with you. 我对你很满意。

I’m not at all satisfied with the present situation. 我对目前的情况一点都不满意。

6. care about感兴趣,关心

He also doesn’t care about being famous. 他对成名也毫不在意。

The only thing he cares about is money. 他唯一关心的只是金钱。

7. lead a…life过着……的生活

He didn’t want to lead an empty life.他不想过空虚的生活。

They lead an easy life (=a life of ease).他们过着舒服的日子。

注:其中的lead也可用live替换。

8. would rather宁愿

(1)表示宁愿做某事,直接接动词原形。注意否定式、疑问式及其回答。

He would rather keep time for his hobbies. 他宁愿把时间花在自己业余爱好上。

I’d rather not go there.我宁愿不去那里。

-Wouldn’t you rather live in the country?你不愿住农村?

-No, I wouldn’t. I’d rather live here.是的。我宁愿就住在这里。

(2)表示“宁愿做……不愿做……”,后接than (do) sth.。

I’d rather stay at home than go. 我宁愿呆在家里也不愿去。

(3)后接从句,从句谓语动词用一般过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成时表示过去。

I’d rather you came tomorrow than today. 我宁愿你明天来,不要今天来。

I’d rather you hadn’t done that. 我真希望你没做过那事。

真题:To enjoy the scenery, Irene would rather spend long hours on the train ______ travel by air. (广西)

A. as            B. to         C. than           D. while

解析:因would rather do A than do B是固定句型,故选C。

9. refer to

(1)指的是,指……而言(mean);与……有关(concern)

You know who I am referring to. 你知道我指的是谁。

(2)提到,谈及,说起(mention, speak of)

I promised not to refer to the matter again. 我答应过再也不提这事了。

(3)查阅,参考,征询(turn to /look at…for information)

You may refer to your notes if you want. 如果需要,可以查阅笔记。

(4)提交(处理),使(某人)找 (send to…for decision /help)

You should refer this matter to an expert. 你应把此事交给专家处理。

10. insist on坚决主张,一定要(后接doing)

He insisted on my going with him.他坚持要我跟他一起去。

I insist on seeing it. 我一定要见到它。

注:insist表示“坚决主张,坚决要求”时,后面的that从句的谓语要用“(should+)动词原形”;但表示“坚持认为”时,用直陈语气。请比较:

She insisted that he was wrong. 她坚持认为他错了。

He insisted that we (should) accept these gifts. 他一定要我们收下这些礼物。

真题:The man insisted______ a taxi for me even though I told him I lived nearby. (江苏)

A. find   B. to find        C. on finding     D. in finding

解析:因为insist后接on doing sth.,故选C。

11. with /in the hope of怀着……的希望

I called in the hope of finding you at home. 我去看你是希望你在家的。

12. used to 过去常常(现在已不是如此了)

He used to walk to his rice fields twice a day, but now he prefers to ride his motorcycle. 他过去一天两次走着去稻秒田,但现在他更喜欢骑摩托车去。

He is not what he used to be. 他已不是旧日的他了。

You used to live in London, usedn’t /didn’t you? 你过去是住伦敦的,是吧?

比较:be/get used to (doing) sth. 习惯于(做)某事

You must get used to getting up early. 你必须习惯于早起。

13. (be) rich in盛产,丰富

    The country is rich in oil and coal. 这个国家石油和煤资源丰富。

This is a play rich in humour. 这是一部富于幽默的戏剧。

Please try to make your speech rich in humour. 尽量使你的发言富于幽默。

四、重要句型详解

1. 倍数+as…as…

Using his hybrid rice farmers are producing harvests twice as large as before. 用他的杂交水稻种子,农民们种出比以前多一倍的粮食。

This book is three times as thick as that one. 这本书的篇幅是那本书的三倍厚。

注:表示倍数还可用“倍数+比较级+than”或“倍数+the+名词+of”。如:

This book is three times thicker than that one.

This book is three times the thickness of that one.

真题:It is re ported that the United States uses ______ energy as the whole of Europe. (广西)

A. as twice      B. twice much   

   C. twice much as  D. twice as much

解析:因题干中有as,选项中有twice(两倍),可见是考查用as…as表示倍数的结构,故选D。

2. not all…并非所有的(部分否定)

Not all students enjoy working in the fields. 并非所有的学生都喜欢到田间劳动。

Not all men can be masters. (= All men cannot be masters.) 并非人人都能当头头。

注:(1)all…not易误解为“所有都不”,其实与not all同义。(2)下列句子也是部分否定:

Both (the) windows are not open. 两扇窗子并不都开着。

Not everyone likes this book. 并非人人都喜欢这本书。

He is not always so sad. 他并不是一直都这样悲伤。

3. 疑问词+do you think+宾语从句的其余部分?

       do you think / believe / suppose / imagine / say / suggest / guess / consider等后面接一个由疑问词引导的宾语从句时,通常要将疑问词提到句首,构成复杂疑问句:疑问词+do you think+宾语从句的其余部分?

What do you think would happen if tomorrow there was suddenly no rice to eat? 你认为要是明天突然没有大米吃,会发生什么事呢?

Why do you think Jane Goodall went to Africa to study chimps rather than to a university? 你认为简·古多尔为什么去非洲研究黑猩猩而不去大学?

真题:Mum is coming. What present _____for your birthday? (福建)

A. you expect she has got          B. you expect has she got

C. do you expect she has got          D. do you expect has she got

解析:因为是疑问句,排除选项A和B;do you expect后是宾语从句,只是其中的what present提到了句首,其语序与陈述句语序相同,排除选项D;故选C。

五、课文难句剖析

1. He wants everyone to call him a farmer, for that's how he regards himself.

剖析:本句是并列句,for是表示原因的并列连词;for分句中有一个how引导的表语从句,意为“他就是这样看待自己的”。

   译文:他让大家叫他农民,因为他也是这样看待自己的。

   2. In 1974, he became the first agricultural pioneer in the world to grow rice that has a high output.

   剖析:that has a high output是定语从句,修饰rice,即“高产的水稻”;to grow rice that has a high output是不定式短语作定语,修饰agricultural pioneer,即“种植高产水稻的农业先锋”;值得一提的是,在序数词后作定语,通常只用动词不定式。

   译文:1974年他成为世界上第一位种植高产水稻的农业先锋。

六、语法知识归纳   

1. 动名词作主语

(1)谓语动词用单数

Wishing for things costs nothing. 愿望是不花本钱的。

(2)有时用形式主语,且多用于一些固定句式中。

It’s no use worrying about it.发愁没有用。

It’s useless arguing(=to argue) with them. 跟他们争辩徒劳无益。

It’s no good waiting here.在这里等没有用。

Do you think it's worthwhile quarrelling with me?你认为和我吵值得吗?

It is hopeless arguing about it.为此争论毫无用处。

(3)有时用被动式。

It’s fun being taken to the Zoo. 被带去逛动物园很有意思。

Being lost can be a terrifying experience. 迷路有时很可怕。

(4)前面有时用形容词性物主代词或名词所有格做逻辑主语。

It’s a waste of time your talking to him. 你和他谈话是白费时间。.

Jenny’s not going to college is her one regret. 杰妮没上过大学是她感到遗憾的事。  

真题:______ the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. (上海)

A. The president will attend          B. The president to attend

C. The president attended          D. The president’s attending

解析:因gave是句子的谓语动词,前面应是主语;用名词所有格加动名词作主语,选D。句意是:总统亲自来参加会议对他们是极大的鼓舞。

2. 动名词作宾语

(1)牢记只能接动名词,不接不定式的动词、短语或句型

动词:allow, permit(允许), consider(考虑), suggest, advice(建议), keep(on)(反复,不停), finish(完成), imagine(想象), practise(练习), understand(明白), appreciate, enjoy(喜欢), miss(错过; 怀念), prevent(阻止), forbid(禁止), escape(避免), include(包括), deny(否认), forgive, pardon, excuse(原谅), dislike(厌恶), discuss(讨论), report(报道), admit(承认), mind(介意), risk(冒险), delay, postpone (推迟)等。

短语:put off(推迟), can’t stand(不能忍受), burst out(突然开始), feel like(想要), insist on(坚持), give up(放弃), be busy(忙于), be worth(值得), succeed in(在某方面成功), look forward to(盼望), devote…to /be devoted to(致力于), be/get used to(习惯), lead to(导致), get down to(开始认真), pay attention to(注意), refer to(谈到), point to(指向), turn to(转向), object to(反对), equal to(等于, 能胜任), belong to(属于)等。

句型:spend…in doing 在做某事方面花费

prevent /stop /keep…from doing 阻止……做……

How /What about doing sth.做……怎么样?

have some difficulty/trouble (in) doing 在做某事方面有些困难

have a hard time in doing sth.做某事很艰难

there is no sense in doing做……是没有道理的

(2)牢记接动名词和接不定式意义差别很大的动词或短语

①remember to do(记住去做),remember doing(记得做过)

②forget to do(忘记去做),forget doing(忘记做过)

③regret to do (遗憾地做),regret doing(后悔做了)

④mean to do(打算做),mean doing(意味着)

⑤stop to do(停下来去做),stop doing(停止做)

⑥try to do(设法做),try doing(试做)

⑦go on to do(接着做另一事),go on doing(继续做同一事)

⑧can’t help to do(不能帮助做),can’t help doing(情不自禁做)

⑨sb. need /want /require to do(需要/想要/要求做某事), sth. need /want /require doing (=to be done) (某物需要做某事)等。

真题:(1)I really can’t understand ______ her like that. (2005安徽)

A. you treat   B. you to treat   C. why treat       D. you treating

解析:因understand要接动名词作宾语,you是treating的逻辑主语,故选D。

(2)Victor apologized for ______to inform me of the change in the plan. (2004上海春)

A. his being not able              B. him not to be able

C. his not being able              D. him to be not able

解析:for是介词,要接动名词,排除B和D;动名词的否定式是在其前面加not,故选C。

(3)The discovery of new evidence led to ______. (上海)

A. the thief having caught         B. catch the thief

C. the thief being caught             D. the thief to be caught

解析:因lead to中的to是介词,要接动名词,排除B和D;逻辑主语the thief与catch是被动关系,所以用动名词的被动式,故选C。

(4) When asked by the police, he said that he remembered ______at the party, but not______. (北京)

A. to arrive; leaving B. to arrive; to leave

C. arriving; leaving D. arriving; to leave

解析:由语境可知,是表示“记得曾经做过某事”,用remember doing,另外but not是与前面并列的,都作remember的宾语,所以都用动名词,故选C。

七、背景知识介绍

现代农业:中国的传统农业数千年来变化不大。大多数的土地都是由单个家庭来耕作,尽管中国是个大国,但只有7%的土地能用来耕作。从二十世纪九十年代初开始,科学家们就开始开发新技术,而不破坏环境来增加农业产量。未来的农业既要依靠传统方法又要依靠高科技,不仅食物产量重要而且也要爱护环境。

中国农民最大的问题是缺少可耕作的土地,中国科学家们用最新的技术在温室里种蔬菜,这些蔬菜的根不是种在泥土里,而是悬挂在容器的水中。今天,许多蔬菜不是种在菜地,而在种在温室里了,不受风、雨和昆虫的破坏,温度由电脑来控制。

 

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