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Unit 5 Theme parks language points2  

2010-01-14 19:42:44|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Unit 5  知识综合辅导
1. amuse
【课文原句】Parks provide people with a place to amuse themselves and to escape their busy lives for a while. (P33)
【名师点拨】amuse vt. 意为“使高兴;使开心”,和please(取悦于;让……高兴)是近义词。amuse oneself意为“自娱自乐;消遣”。amuse的名词形式是amusement。如:
 I think it amuses him to see people make fools of themselves.
I bought a magazine to amuse myself while I was on the train.
They are more than amusement parks with rides, such as a Ferris wheel, merry-go-round or a roller coaster. (P33)
Carl came last in the race, much to my amusement.
【知识拓展】amused adj. 意为“逗乐的;觉得好笑的”,常用be amused (at / by sth),指“觉得有趣;好笑;以……为乐”。如:
     She was very amused by / at your comments.
     Amused by the flying kites, the child stopped crying.

2. various
【课文原句】Though parks share this basic purpose, they find various ways to meet this need. (P33)
【名师点拨】various adj. 意为“不同的;各种各样的”,相当于different kinds of,后接复数名词。如:
At the meeting, the people present expressed their various opinions.
The students were late for various reasons.
【知识拓展】various是由动词vary(变化)派生而来的形容词,它的副词形式是variously。variety是名词,意为“有变化”,用a variety of表示“各种各样的;多种多样的”,后接复数名词,可与various互用。如:
 These new parks have a variety of things to see and do. (P33)

3. charge
【课文原句】They all charge money for admission, and for the rides and shows in the park. (P33)
【名师点拨】charge通常作及物动词,意为“收(费);索(价)”,此时charge后接宾语(被收费的对象)和钱数;如果接购买的商品或其它原因,用for连接。如:
I’ll charge you five dollars.
How much do you charge for a haircut?
charge还可以表示“把……归咎于(to, on, upon);告发;在控告(with)”。如:
Bob was charged with the murder, but he refused to admit it.
【知识拓展】charge作名词时,构成许多固定搭配:in charge(主管);in charge of(负责某事);in the charge of(由……管);take charge of(负责管理)。如:
     The doctor in charge told us to be calm.
     Who is in charge of the school instead of Mr Black?
     The factory has been in the charge of the new boss for five months.
  Can you take charge of this class please, Miss Li?

4. profit
【课文原句】The big companies that own them parks except to make a profit not just by the charges for admission… (P33)
【名师点拨】profit n.意为“利润;经济上的好处”,既可数也不可数,用作复数的场合较多;也可译为“好处;益处(不可数)”。make a profit指“获得利润”。如:
Tom said he would give up his profits if there were no explanations to give him.
She makes a big profit from selling waste material to textile companies.
【知识拓展】profit也可作及物或不及物动词,profit by意为“从……中得到好处”。如:
You must make it clear what it will profit me.
You may profit by the experience of others.

5. advance
【课文原句】… and there are future parks, where people can go on imaginary trips to space and use advanced computer techniques to experience life in the future. (P34)
【名师点拨】advanced adj. 意为“高级的;先进的”,其动词形式是advance,可作及物动词或不及物动词,意为“推进;促进;提前”。如:
The Party Committee is going to advance our career to a new stage. (及物动词)
The date of the meeting has been advanced from Friday to Monday. (及物动词)
After having studied abroad for three years, they didn’t advance in knowledge at all. (不及物动词)

6. up-to-date
【课文原句】Science and technology-based theme parks like. Futuroscope provide up-to-date information, hands-on learning and lots of fun and excitement. (P38)
【名师点拨】up-to-date作形容词用,意思是“最新的;现代的;跟上时代的”。其反义词是out-of-date,意为“落后的;过时的”。如:
The editors are trying to bring a nuclear physics textbook up-to-date.
重点短语

7. come to life
【课文原句】The past can come to life when we see how our ancestors dressed, worked and lived. (P34)
【名师点拨】come to life意为“苏醒过来”,引申意义是“回复生机;重新辉煌”等。如:
     The old company came to life after the new technology was brought in. 
【知识拓展】bring to life意为“使苏醒;使复活”,bring之后可以接宾语。如:
The doctor brought the patient to life after a few minutes’ treatment.
The scientists brought the factory to life, which had almost been closed.

8. get close to
【课文原句】Disneyland has exciting rides, visits to castles and chances to get close to the life-size cartoon figures. (P34)
【名师点拨】get close to意为“靠近”,其中close是副词,close既可以表示具体的“近”,也可以表示抽象含义,意思是“接近;紧密地;牢牢地”。如:
    The firemen couldn’t get close to the building because the ladders are too short.
     The army men stood close to their officer, fearing nothing.

9. involve in
【课文原句】Its purpose is to involve visitors in physical exercise and athletic competition. (P34)
【名师点拨】involve是及物动词,意思是“牵涉;牵连”。involve in意为“使牵连进去;使陷入”,有时可表示“聚精会神干某事”。involve with意为“和……混在一起;和……有密切关系”。如:
The second accident involved two cars and a lorry.
The Mrs Blacks have been involved in trouble.
I prefer teaching methods that actively involve students in learning.
Our physics teacher got involved with a difficult problem.

10. name after
【课文原句】The park is named after Walt Disney, the famous film maker. (P34)
【名师点拨】name作动词,意为“取名;命名”。name after意为“根据(按照)……命名;用……的名字作名字”。如:
   The girl was named Mary after her mother.
【知识拓展】name作名词时有很多固定搭配:
by name  用名字;按名字
by the name of  名叫……的
in the name of   以……的名义
under the name of  用……的名字;以……为笔名
Can you list the works of Walk Disney by name?
Once upon a time, there lived a man known by the name of Oscar.
The police arrested the suspect in the name of the law.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens wrote a lot of short stories and essays under the name of Mark Twain.

 

合成词例析

合成法是英语中主要的构词法之一,它是指把两个或两个以上的词组成一个新词。 由合成法产生的新词称之为合成词。合成词在英语中比较活跃。合成名词可以在句中作主语、宾语等; 合成形容词多作定语,有些也可作表语; 合成动词也很常见。   

       1. 合成名词

       合成名词常见的构词方法如下:

       名词+名词:football   classroom

       形容词+名词:shorthand(速记法)    blackboard

       动词+名词:breakwater(防浪堤)    pickpocket(扒手)

       副词+名词:downfall(衰落;垮台)  outbreak(爆发)

       v-ing+名词:sleeping-pill   waiting-room

       名词+v-ing:handwriting    sunbathing

       动词+副词:get-together    breakthrough

       另外,还有一些其它方式构成的合成名词:go-between(媒人,中间人)  good-for-nothing(无用的人, 懒惰的人)

请看如下例句:

       Sightseeing took up the whole morning. 观光花了一上午的时间。

   Finally they reached a crossroads.

       最后他们来到了一个十字路口。

       Smoking is not allowed during take-off.  飞机起飞时不允许吸烟。

       2. 合成形容词

       合成形容词常见的构词方法如下:

       形容词+名词+-ed : good-tempered(脾气好的)  noble-minded(思想高尚的)

       形容词+ v-ing: good-looking   easy-going(随和的) 

       形容词+过去分词: ready-made(现成的)

       名词+v-ing: peace-loving   epoch-making(划时代的)

       名词+过去分词: heart-felt(衷心的)    handmade

       名词+形容词: duty-free(免关税的)    self-satisfied(沾沾自喜的)

       副词+过去分词: well-known   widespread

       副词+ v-ing: hard-working   far-reaching(意义深远的)

请看如下例句:

       If I were you, I should get ready-made trousers.

       如果我是你,我就买现成的裤子。

       She is very outgoing.  她很外向。

       3. 合成动词

       合成动词常见的构词方法如下:

       名词+动词:brainwash

                         sleepwalk(梦游)

       副词+动词:outweigh    overcome

       形容词+动词: safeguard(保护)

                             blackmail(敲诈)

请看如下例句:

       They are now mass-producing this instrument.

       他们现在正在大批量生产这种仪器。

       We managed to overcome all the difficulties.

       我们设法克服了所有困难。

       总之,英语中有很大一部分单词是通过构词法形成的。只要掌握了基本的词汇,加上正确运用构词法知识,不仅可以大大提高记忆词汇的效率,而且在阅读中还可以利用构词法知识分解单词、破解词意、消除阅读障碍,从而大大提高阅读理解能力。

 

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