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Unit 4 Making the news3  

2010-01-25 13:05:55|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Fifth Period Listening and Speaking

Teaching goals 教学目标

1. Target language 目标语言

 

 

 

重点句式

Shall we make an appointment?   

Maybe we can meet at ...             

When do you think is convenient for you?

Which day would suit you best? 

Where would you like to meet?    

I shall be busy at ... and ..., but I can be free at ...

I suggest that we meet ...

I may be able to see you at ...

That will / won’t be convenient because ...

I look forward to seeing you.

2. Ability goals能力目标

Enable the students to make appointments.

3. Learning ability goals 学能目标

Help the students learn how to make appointments.

Teaching important && difficult points 教学重难点

Guide the students to learn how to make appointments.

Teaching methods 教学方法 

Listening; speaking; cooperative learning.

Teaching aids 教具准备

A computer, a projector and a tape recorder.

Teaching procedures & ways教学过程与方式

Step Ⅰ Lead-in

T: If you were a reporter, who would you want to interview most? Why?

S: I would want to interview Jackie Chen because I want to know more about his life and the key to success.

S: I would want to interview Yao Ming because he is the idol of many young people and I want to know about his life in America.

T: Great ideas!

 

Step Ⅱ Listening

Task 1 Deal with the listening part on page 31.

T: Open your books and turn to page 31. First go through the questions of Exercises 1 & 2 in Listening and Speaking and make sure what to do while listening. I will play the tape three times. For the first time, just listen for the main idea and do Exercise 1. For the second time, finish Exercise 2. And the last time, check your answers yourselves.

Play the tape three times, and then check the answers.

Task 2 Deal with LISTENING on page 62 and LISTENING TASK on page 66.

T: Now we’re going to do more listening practice.

Play the tape twice and then check the answers.

 

 

 

Step III Summary and Homework

T: In this period we’ve done some listening practice. After class, please listen to the recording repeatedly and pay attention to the pronunciation.

 

The Sixth Period Writing

Teaching goals 教学目标

1. Target language 目标语言

重点词汇和短语

eyewitness, opinion, information, stick to, rather than, account for

2. Ability goals能力目标

a. Enable the students to express opinions of their own and justify the situations according to different opinions.

b. Enable the students to do news-writing.

3. Learning ability goals 学能目标

Help the students learn how to express their own opinions and find out truth through their own analysis.

Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点

a. Help the students learn how to express their own opinions and find out truth through their own analysis.

b. Guide the students to write the news clearly and pithily.

Teaching methods 教学方法 

Cooperative learning; task-based method.

Teaching aids 教具准备

A computer and a projector.

Teaching procedures & ways教学过程与方式

 

Step Ⅰ Lead-in

T: From the listening part we did yesterday we know there is something that is very important in finding out the truth. What is that?

S: Eyewitness.

T: Very good. Now imagine you are the organizer of a local fishing competition. A person tells you he / she had caught a fish which is the size of a small car. It will win him / her first prize at the competition. But an eyewitness says he / she cheated. He saw the fisherman buying it at a fish shop. Do you believe the eyewitness or the fisherman? Give your reason(s). I will give you eight minutes to think it over.

Eight minutes later.

T: OK. Time’s up. Who would like to represent your opinions?

S: Let me try. If I am the organizer, I would find out the truth no matter what they say. I will go to the fish shop where the fisherman had bought the fish according to the eyewitness. This is the best way to find out the truth I think.

...

 

Step Ⅱ Speaking Task

Let the students work in groups of four to discuss the situation in Ex. 2 on page 67 and then fill in the chart below. After that, let them role-play the situation. 

A sample dialogue:

TV — CCTV Newsman / Newswoman       

F — Fisherman 

R — Reporter of Local Evening News   

E — Eyewitness  

TV: Good evening. It is lovely to be with you and to-night we have a very special story. It’s about a very large and rare fish that was caught during a fishing competition. And who is sitting here tonight is the fisherman who caught it. Good evening.

F: Good evening.

TV: Can you tell your story to the audience?

F: OK. It was quite by accident. I went to the river early that morning. There was no one else. I threw my fishing line into the water and was amazed to find that immediately I had a bite on the line. It was this wonderful fish. So, of course, I pulled it out of the water quickly.

TV: And was it the largest fish caught so far?

F: Yes, indeed.

TV: But an eyewitness has said that he saw you buying this fish in a fish shop.

F: Well, I think that must have been a mistake. This is my fish. I caught it and it belongs to me. I can’t understand why someone would make up such a story.

TV: Well, we’ll see. Let’s go to our reporter. He’s talking to the eyewitness who saw the whole thing.

R: Hello there. I’m right by the fish shop and with me is Zhang Xia who saw the fisherman buy the fish. Now please tell us what happened?

E: I saw the fisherman go into the shop and come out with this large, rare fish. When he went into the shop he had nothing at all. Really!

R: Did you follow him?

E: Yes, because I thought it was a little strange. When I got close to the river I saw him showing his fish to the other fishermen. Then he went to the judges and they weighed his fish and told him it was the largest so far.

R: Goodness. So you think he cheated?

E: Yes, I think so.

R: Wow! I must return you to the studio.

TV: Well, what do you have to say about that?

F: ... It’s a lie! He has a friend who’s also taking part in this competition. I think he just wants him to win.

TV: We can settle this right away. All we have to do is to go to the fish shop and ask the shopkeeper if he recognizes you or not.

...

 

Step Ⅲ Writing Task

T: Now write the story as a newspaper article. List the facts and the opinions that go with them. Write about each fact and then write about the opinion. Try to follow the model on page 68 and make the news clear and pithy. At the same time please pay attention to the following:

State the situation of the story in Paragraph 1;

Set out what happened clearly in Paragraphs 2 and 3;

State how the story ended and your opinion on what happened in Paragraph 4.

Allow the students enough time to work on their writing.

A sample version:

Fish Story

       Today is the city’s annual Fathers’ Day Fishing Competition. Mr. Thompson took part in the fishing competition. He presented a very large and rare fish as big as a small car.

       Mr. Thompson said, “It was quite by accident.” “I had a bite on the line. It was this wonderful fish. So, of course, I pulled it out of the water very quickly.” He added.

       However, an eyewitness said he had seen Mr. Thompson earlier in the day buying fish at the fish market. He said, “I saw the fisherman go into the shop and come out with this large, rare fish.” “Then he went to the judges and they weighed his fish and told him it was the largest so far”, said the witness.

       Mr. Thompson finally admitted he had bought the fish and had not caught it. He apologized in public and said that he only did it so his son would be proud of him as a fisherman. So it seems that it was Mr. Thompson who was the big fish!

 

Step Ⅳ Homework

Review the whole unit and prepare for a test.

 

附  件

文化背景知识

Newspaper interviewing tips

       The best thing to do when interviewing a source is to act naturally. An interview does not have to happen in a formal, suited atmosphere. An interview is just a talk with someone about a specific topic. But instead of merely hearing, the reporter is listening and writing down the pertinent details. Reporters must keep their opinions to themselves.

Preparing for the interview

       Don’t go to an interview unprepared. Check newspaper files and the library for information on your subject or the topic. Have some information in your head before you start. For example, if you are interviewing a person who sells furs and is annoyed by animal rights pickets, it might be interesting to know if this person has a dog or a cat.

       Have your questions ready. Don’t expect your news source to tell you voluntarily what you want to know. Your questions, although you may stray from them, help you organize your thoughts. They also will remind you to get all the answers you want.

       Make an appointment. You can’t go into a busy official’s office and get 30 minutes of his or her time unless you first set up an appointment. Then make sure you arrive on time.

       Dress properly. Be prepared and show respect for the source.

       Take three things with you on every assignment: a pencil, a piece of paper and a grain of salt. Be a bit skeptical, don’t believe everything you’re told.

Conducting the interview

       Introduce yourself and the publication for which you are writing.

       Look your subject in the eye. Don’t be so busy taking notes that all the source sees are your flying fingers and the top of your head. It makes some people nervous to see every word being written down.

       Often, the first question to ask is how to spell the individual’s name. Don’t rely on the spelling you’ve seen somewhere else because it could be wrong. A misspelled name is definitely the first way to lose credibility.

       Pronounce the name of the respondent correctly and use it from time to time during the interview.

       Double-check the dates and the spelling of names. Even a name like Smith can be spelled differently. Don’t ever be afraid to ask what you might fear is a silly question.

       Start with easy, sociable questions to relax the person you’re interviewing. Save the tough questions for later. Avoid questions that appear to have predetermined answers. Don’t let your opinions determine the focus of your questioning.

       Ask open-ended questions that invite a lengthy answer and can bring out anecdotes and opinions: “How did you react?” or “Why do you think that happened?” Try to take down as many direct quotes as possible. Don’t ask questions that let your source give one-word answers.

       Don’t ask negative questions. That is, don’t say, “No news, yet?” Don’t make it easy for your subject to say “no”.

       Let the interviewee know you know something about him or her. This is called priming the interviewee. It goes like this: Mr. Jones, I understand you appeared in a movie about the takeover by people under 30. Do you believe this could actually happen?

       Accept all facts and other data professionally. Do not argue or show undue shock or surprise.

       Have a note-taking system. For example, write “rr” for railroad.

       Do not promise to let the interviewee read the story before it is published.

       Leave the door open for another talk. Ask the subject if he or she would mind if you made contact later personally or by phone for a follow-up. Get a phone number where the source can be reached later. End the interview by making sure you have a phone number to contact the source later for further facts or clarification. If you use a tape recorder, don’t depend on it. Batteries run down and tape recorders can malfunction. Take notes, even if you’re using a tape recorder.

Taking notes

       Some kind of shorthand is a must. Most reporters use some form of shortened writing, such as “w/o” for without or “inc” for incomplete. Initials can stand for titles and symbols can be used to refer to organizations.

       Set apart direct quotes with circles, quotation marks, stars or underlining. Taking notes on one side of the paper or pad makes their rearrangement to fit story structure easier.

       Listen carefully. Don’t note unimportant details.

       Ask for the spellings on all names and titles. It is better to ask now than to have to call back to get them. Or worse, to get them wrong in the story.

       Get direct quotations, especially on the main points.

       Observe details about your source and surround-ings, and write down your impressions.

Concentrate on what you are seeing and hearing. Immediately after an interview, review and supplement your notes. Arrange your notes in order of importance. It is unnecessary to write complete sentences unless you wish to get a direct quote in its entirety.

       Write down specific information you cannot trust to memory: ages, names, addresses, statistics, sums of money. Try to get biographical information where needed and look for newspaper clips and other material which may be used for background information.

       Do not be afraid to double-check unclear information even if you must make a follow-up call to do so.

       Exciting writing is built on exciting anecdotes, so the interviewer is always listening for them. A really sharp interviewer also listens for clues to experiences that could make lively anecdotes. Then the interviewer directs the subject to “give me an example” or “tell me about a time when that actually happened.”

Finding anecdotes

       An anecdote is a small story. So, anecdotes can become stories within your larger story. Often, an anecdote will illustrate something about the interviewee such as his or her loyalty, bravery, persistence or a quality which a “title story” can illustrate. These must be carefully "mined". Watch your subject.

       Observe non-verbal — body gestures, facial expressions, paralanguage (the way something is said), artifacts (what the person is wearing), movement — of the interviewee. About 70 percent of total communication is non-verbal. Thus, if you are to tell the complete story, you must provide the reader with the complete story.

Study the environment

       Bulletin boards, desktops, pictures on the wall, file cabinets, etc. How does the sunlight stream into the room? And how does all this relate to the interviewee? Avoid using description just for the sake of description.

Post-interview

       Some interviewees are masters at “pulling the wool” over reporters’ eyes. So, be ready to check statements or figures with other sources. You should not take everything at face value. You should be a bit skeptical. Remember: “If your mother says she loves you, check it out!”

            

Newspaper writing tips

Writing the story

       A story is much like a conversation. It begins with the most interesting piece of information or a summary of the highlights and works its way down to the least interesting facts. There are words or phrases that take you from one topic of conversation to another. Before you know it, you’ve finished.

Inverted pyramid

       You should be very familiar with the inverted pyramid style of writing. You’ll likely use it every day. For example, when you call a friend to tell him or her about a big date, you begin by telling the most interesting and important things first. The least important information is saved for the end of the conversation, and depending on how much time you have to talk, that information may not get into the conversation.

       That concept also applies to news stories. The lead is the first paragraph of a news story. Usually, the lead is one sentence long and summarizes the facts of the news story in order of most newsworthy to least news-worthy. The reader should know at first glance what the story is about and what its emphasis is.

Here is an example:

       Bargainers from General Motors and UAW Local 160 will resume talks in Warren this morning seeking to end a day-old strike over the transfer of jobs from unionized employees to less costly contract workers.

The five Ws and an H

       Depending on the elements of news value, the summary news lead emphasizes and includes some or all of the five Ws and an H.

       Who names the subject(s) of the story. The who, a noun, can refer to a person, a group, a building, an institution, a concept — anything about which a story can be written.

       The who in the lead above are the bargainers from General Motors and the UAW.

       The what is the action taking place. It is a verb that tells what the who is doing. Reporters should always use active voice and action verbs for the what because they make the wording direct and lively.

       What are the bargainers doing? The lead says they will resume talks.

       When tells the time the action is happening. It is an adverb or an adverb phrase.

       When will the bargainers resume talks? This morning.

       Where is the place the action is happening. Again, it is an adverb or adverb phrase. In our story, the where is Warren.

       Why, another adverb, explains the action in the lead. The bargainers are meeting to discuss the transfer of jobs.

       How usually describes the manner in which action occurs.

The lead

       The lead sets the structure for the rest of the story. If the lead is good, the rest of the story comes together easily. Many reporters spend half their writing time on the lead alone. One guiding principle behind story organization is: The structure of the story can help the reader understand what you are writing about. The structure should lead the reader from idea to idea simply and clearly. The object is to give readers information, and wow them with convoluted style.

News lead

       In one of their bloodiest raids into Lebanon in years, Israeli warplanes killed dozens of Muslim guerrillas with rockets and machine-gun fire Thursday as they pounded a training camp of the pro-Aranian party of God.

Quote lead

       I have the worst job in the Army.

       This is an example of a good quote lead because the reader asks, “What could that possibly be?”

Description lead

       Penciled sketches of an air strike, complete with renderings of F14s and Patriot missiles. And on the ground, tiny people run for cover. That’s how 8-year-old Jimmy Zayas pictures war in the Middle East ...

       Like a beauty pageant entrant, Donald Hofeditz struts his vital statistics. He curls his thumb in his waistband to show he’s a size 36, down from 40. He pats his stomach where 50 pounds used to rest. And he rubs his chest about his now healthy cholesterol level of 177.

       Hofeditz even relishes showing his “before” pictures. The pot-bellied 70-year-old in the early 1980s was unable to cut his backyard grass because of the cumbersome weight.

Bad lead

       A reminder to those who enjoy good new records. The library has 22 new records which it is willing to loan out! The students are invited to come and look them over!

       In the first place, the opening sentence isn’t even a sentence. There are times when sentence fragments are acceptable if you use them effectively, but that first sentence isn’t one of them. Is it news that the library is willing to “loan out” materials? That’s what libraries are for. The word “out” is unnecessary. And “loan” is an adjective or a noun, not a verb. Make it “lend”. A better way to express the thoughts in this lead would be: Twenty-two new records have been placed in the school’s lending library, the head librarian announced.

Transitions

       With one-sentence paragraphs consisting of only one idea — block paragraphs — it would be easy for a story to appear as a series of statements without any smooth flow from one idea to the next. Block paragraphing makes the use of effective transitions important. Transitions are words or phrases that link two ideas, making the movement from one to the other clear and easy. Obvious transitional phrases are: thus, therefore, on the other hand, next, then, and so on.

Transitions in news stories are generally done by repeating a word or phrase or using a synonym for a key word in the preceding paragraph. Think of block graphs as islands tied together with transition bridges of repeated words or phrases.

Direct quotes

       You should use direct quotes:

       If a source’s language is particularly colorful or picturesque.

       When it is important for written information — especially official information — to come from an obviously authoritative voice to answer the questions “why, how, who or what?”

       Use a direct quote after a summary statement that needs amplification, verification or example. Remember, a direct quote repeats exactly what the interviewee said. If you don’t have a person’s exact words, you can paraphrase, but you cannot change the meaning of a person’s words. And when you paraphrase, you must never use quotation marks.

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