注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

紫霞仙客的博客

我和我的女儿 我和我的学生

 
 
 

日志

 
 

引用 我的课件---Mogao Caves  

2010-11-04 14:50:02|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

 

引用

May我的课件---Mogao Caves

     从进大学到现在做了不少的课件,每一份都很认真地制作完成。当然,问题应该不少。上完课,不想就这样把它们丢弃了。现在整理出来,也为以后做参考。

     莫高窟,是我上旅游英语时做的课件。当时做了好久,也查了许多的资料。发现,其实许多事物只有深入研究才能发掘更多的精华与惊喜。

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

The Outline of My Topic

1.A survey of Mogao Caves

2.The mural:Apsara(the flying Apsars)

3.Crying for Mogao Caves

 

1. Introduction   

     Mogao Caves are the nation key cultural relic preservation organ,

popularly known as the Thousand Buddha Caves . Mogao Caves are

located southeast the Chinese Gansu Province Dunhuang east 25

kilometers place Mt. Mingsha on the foothill cliff, first near dawdle

Quan River, face east, north and south length 1680 meters, height 50

meters. Cavern distribution height scattered about, row after row,

about most has five. Mogao means high up in the desert.

 

 

Its beginning constructs at 16 countries' former Qin times, has been

constructing repeatedly through 16 countries, the Northern Dynasty, Sui,

Tang, five generations, Tangut , the Yuan and so on .

      Dating from the fourth to the fourteenth centuries - a period which

corresponds to an immense growth in international commerce along the

nearby Silk Road. The caves were abandoned in the fourteenth century

and lay untouched until the beginning of the twentieth century.

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

A story about its founding:

According to "An Account Of Buddhist Shrines" written by Li Junxiu during the reign of Tang Empress Wu (684-704), in 366 a monk named Lezun had witnessed

onsite a vision of thousand Buddhas under showers of

golden rays. Thus inspired, he started the caves construction

work that spanned ten

dynasties. 我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

Mogao Caves has 492 caves, with 45,000 square meters of frescos, 2, 415 painted statues and five wooden-structured caves. The Mogao Grottoes contain priceless paintings, sculptures, some 50,000 Buddhist scriptures, historical documents, textiles, and other relics that first stunned the world in the early 1900s.                            

According to archaeologists, it is the greatest and most consummate repository of Buddhist art in the world.

 

Buddhist scripture 我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

 

光绪26年(公元1900年),在16窟北壁发现砌封于隐室中满贮从三国魏晋到

北宋时期的经卷、文书,织绣和画像等约5万余件。文书除汉文写本外,栗特

文、佉卢文、回骨文、吐蕃文、梵文、藏文等各民族文字写本约占六分之一。

文书内容有佛、道等教的教门杂文的宗教文书,文学作品、契约、账册、公文

书函等的世俗文书。

 

莫高窟艺术的特点表现在建筑 塑像和壁画三者的有机结合上 窟形建制分为禅窟 殿堂窟 塔庙窟 穹隆顶窟 影窟等多种形制 彩塑分圆塑 浮塑 影塑 善业塑等 壁画类别分尊像画 经变画 故事画 佛教史迹画 建筑画 山水画 供养画 动物画 装饰画等不同内容,系统反映了十六国 北魏 西魏 北周 隋 唐 五代 宋 西夏 元等十多个朝代及东西方文化交流的各个方面,成为人类稀有的文化宝藏

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

The Study of Dunhuang Cultural

 

Chinese scholars such as Luo Zhenyu and Wang Guowei cultivated

the study of Dunhuang culture by publishing a number of books in

1910. The Dunhuang Art Academy was established by Chang Shuhong

later.

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

A Chinese star chart

 

A Chinese star chart possiblydating

from the 7th century AD mapped the

heavens with an accuracy unsurpassed

until the Renaissance, according to

research.

    The Dunhuang chart is the oldest

manuscript star map in the world and

one of the most valuable treasures in

astronomy.

  The fine paper scroll, measuring 210

by 25 centimetres, (82 by 10 inches)

displays no less than 1,345 stars

grouped in 257 non-constellation

patterns.

   Such detail was not matched until

Galileo and other European

astronomers began searching the skies

hundreds of years later - and they had

 the advantage of telescopes.

 

Dr Francoise Praderie, from the Paris Observatory, who studied the

map with fellow French astronomer Dr Jean-Marc Bonnet-Bidaud,

said: "The origin of the star chart's manufacture and real use

remains unknown. One can conjecture that it was used for military

and travellers' needs and probably also for uranomancy - divination

by consulting the heavens - as suggested by the cloud divination

texts preceding the charts.

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

2. The mural

 

Fresco painting---Detial of a Legant

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

Zhang Qian Goes West

(618-712 C.E)

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

飞天

 

The origin of Apsars

 

敦煌飞天是敦煌莫高窟的名片,是敦煌艺术的标志。只要看到优美的飞天。人们就

会想到敦煌莫高窟艺术。敦煌莫高窟492个洞窟中,几乎窟窟画有飞天。

 

一、敦煌飞天的名称由来

   佛教中把化生到净土天界的神庆人物称为“天”,如“大梵天”、“功德天”、“善才天”、

“三十三天”等。唐藏〈金光明经疏〉中云:“外国呼神亦为天。”佛教中把空中飞行的天

神称为飞天。飞天多画在佛教石窟壁画中。

   道教中把羽化升天的神话人物称为“仙”,如“领先仙”、“天仙”、“赤脚大仙”等,把能

在空中飞行的天神称为飞仙。宋〈太平御览〉卷622引〈天仙品〉中云:“飞行云中,神

化轻举,以为天仙,亦云飞仙。”飞仙多画在墓室壁画中,象征着墓室主人的灵魂能羽

化升天。

   佛教传入中国后,与中国的道教交流融合。

   在佛教初传不久的魏晋南北朝时,曾经把壁画中的飞天亦称为飞仙,是飞天、飞仙

不分。后来随着佛教在中国的深入发展,佛教的飞天、道教的飞仙虽然在艺术形

象上互相融合,但在名称上,只把佛教石窟壁画中的空中飞神称为飞天。

 敦煌飞天就是画在敦煌石窟中的飞神,后来成为敦煌壁画艺术的一个专用名词。

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

Apsara

       Derived from Hindu mythology, an apsara is a celestial courtesan. In India, they were originally portrayed as nude, haloed female musicians, riding in clouds and showering flower petals.

     When this mythological character traveled from India to the more conservative cultural climate of Confucianist China, its bold presentation was toned down. The apsara of the Mogao caves do not travel on clouds, nor are they painted with a halo. Similarly, the potent sexuality of the Indian figure has been muted; only the upper torso of the Dunhuang apsara is naked, and this is partly obscured by the innovation of a long Persian scarf that floats around the flying angel.

      Often these mythological beings are used to decorate wide borders along the upper parts of walls, commonly at divisions between the top of the wall and the ceiling or within the ceiling design itself.

 

敦煌飞天从起源和职能上说,它不是一位神。它是乾闼婆与紧那罗的复合体。乾闼婆是印度梵语的音译,意译为天歌神。由于他周身散发香气,又叫香间神。紧那罗是印度古梵文的音译,意译为天乐神。乾闼婆和紧那罗原来是印度古神话和婆罗门教中的娱乐神和歌舞神。神话传说中说他们一个善歌,一个善舞,形影不离,融洽和谐,是恩爱的夫妻。后来被佛教吸收,化为天龙八部众神中的两位天神。之后,乾闼婆和紧那罗男女不分,合为一体,化为后世的敦煌飞天。音乐界、舞蹈界为了把他们和乐伎加以区别,把早期天宫奏乐的乾闼婆定名为天宫乐伎,把后来合为一体、持乐歌舞的飞天定名为飞天伎乐。

   敦煌飞天从艺术形象上说,它不是一种文化的艺术形象,

而是多种文化的复合体。飞天的故乡虽在印度,但敦煌飞

天却是印度文化、西域文化、中原文化共同孕育成的。它是印度佛教天人和中国道教羽人、西域飞天和中原飞天长期交流、事融合为一,具有中国文化特色的飞天。它是不长翅磅的不生羽毛、没有圆光、借助彩云而不依靠彩云,主要凭借飘曳的衣裙、飞舞的彩带而凌空翱翔的飞天。敦煌飞天可以说是中国艺术家最天才的创作,是世界美术史上的一个奇迹。

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

3. Crying for Mogao Caves

    Between 1906 and 1919 the Mogao Caves was

looted. Much of the Hand-copied ancient books,

manuscripts, literary works, Buddhist and secular

decorative art works, and ancient manuscripts were

removed by Aurel Stein, Paul Pelliot, Sergei Feodorovich

Oldenburg and other archaeologists.

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

 

Mogao Caves situated at a strategic point along the Silk

Route, at the crossroads of trade as well as religious, cultural

and intellectual influences, the 492 cells and cave sanctuaries

in Mogao are famous for their statues and wall paintings,

spanning 1,000 years of Buddhist art.

 

莫高窟地处丝绸之路的一个战略要点。它不仅是东西方贸易

的中转站,同时也是宗教、文化和知识的交汇处。莫高窟的492

个小石窟和洞穴庙宇,以其雕像和壁画闻名于世,展示了延续

千年的佛教艺术。

                                                             ——世界遗产委员会评价

我的课件---Mogao Caves  - May - Ava的博客

  评论这张
 
阅读(75)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

在LOFTER的更多文章

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017