人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们
主格 i you he she it we you they
宾格 me you him her it us you them
人称 我的 你的 他的 她的 它的 我们的 你们的 他们的
形容词性 my your his her its ours your they
名词性 mine yours his hers its ours yours theirs
人称 我 你 他 她 它 我们 你们 他们
反身代词 myself yourself himself herself itself ourselves yourself themselves
指示代词主要有this, that, these, those
疑问代词有:who, whom whose, what, which,
还有疑问副词when, how, where, why。
不定代词在初中课本中主要有some, any, many, much, each, neither, other, another, all, both, one, none, either…
[误]Tom's mother is taller than my.
[正]Tom's mother is taller than mine.
[析]形容词性物主代词可以作定语,也就是讲它可以作形容词,如:my book,而这句话的意思是:汤姆的妈妈比我的妈妈高。比较的对象是my mother,也就是mine。
[误]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish them.
[正]We have a lot of homework to do today. So we need two or three hours to finish it.
[误]He and you should go to the library to return the books.
[正]You and he should go to the library to return the books.
[析]这主要是英语习惯上的用法。当两个以上的人称代词并列时其排列顺序一般为you, he, she, I,而复数时为we, you, they:如男女并列时,应先男后女,如:He and she …如果在表示不好意思,承担责任时,单数时用,I, he, she, you, 复数时用They, you, we, 如:Tom and I are good friends.
You, he and I must go to play the game for our team this afternoon.
We, you and they have been there before.
I, he and you have to pay for it.
[误]He or his brother is doing their homework.
[正]He or his brother is doing his homework.
[析]由either…or, neither…nor, or 连接两个主语时,如果两主语是单数时,用单数代词,如两主语是复数时,用复数代词,如:Either teachers or students want to do their best to help the old man.如是一单一复两名词时,一般将单数名词放在前,复数名词放在后,要用复数代词,如:The teacher or his students will clean their classroom together.
[误]His brother is taller than him.
[正]His brother is taller than he.
[析]than是连词,其后应视为省略句,than he is.所以要注意区分其主格与宾格的用法。
I like you as much as she.
[正]I like you as much as her.
[析]as…as 其后也应看作是省略句。应为as I like her.所以应用宾格。而第一句应译为我像她那样喜欢你。两句语法都是对的但含义不同。
[误]Myself did it yesterday.
[正]I myself did it yesterday.
[正]I did it myself yesterday.
[误]Take care of ourselves.
[正]Take care of yourselves .(yourself)
[误]Please bring your daughter with yourself.
[正]Please bring your daughter with you.
[析]反身代词不能作介词宾语,除非是由不及物动词与介词组成的动词短语,如: The old woman spoke to herself.
[误]Make yourself home.
[正]Make yourself at home.
enjoy oneself 玩得开心make yourself at home 像在家中一样
help yourself to something 自己拿某物lost oneself 迷路
seat oneself 就坐dress oneself 穿衣
[误]- Who's this speaking.- That's Mary.
[正]- Who's that speaking.- This is Mary.
[误]The days in summer are longer than this in winter.
[正]The days in summer are longer than those in winter.
[析]在比较句中往往为了避免重复,可以用that或those取代前面提到的事物,如是单数时用that,复数时用those,如:The weather in Beijing is hotter than that in Chang Chun.
[误]It is so a good book that everyone likes to read.
[正]It is such a good book that everyone likes to read.
[正]It is so good a book that everyone likes to read.
[析]在可数名词单数时可用so+形容词+不定冠词+名词+that从句,也可用such+不定冠词+形容词+that从句。在不可数名词或可数名词复数时,只用such, 如:It is such good weather that I want to go swimming. They are such good books that I want to buy them all.在many, much, few, little这4个词前仅能用so,如: She has so much money that she can buy everything she wants.而在so与that之间仅存形容词时,则不能用such,如:She is so sweet that everyone likes her.
[误]I want to buy a same dictionary as yours.
[正]I want to buy the same dictionary as yours.
[析]same与定冠词the是固定搭配不可更改。这样的用法还有all the same(仍然)。
[误]- I hope she might pass the exam.- I don't hope so.
[正]- I hope she might pass the exam.- I hope not.
[析]在作肯定回答时,I think so. I hope so. I believe so.但作否定回答时为:I don't think so. I hope/believe not.
[误]- He studied very hard this term.- So she did.
[正]- He studied very hard this term.- So did she.
[误]- English is difficult to learn.- So is it.
[正]- English is difficult to learn.- So it is.
[误]Everyone should do one's best.
[正]Everyone should do his best.
[析]one作代词时,它的复数形式是ones,所有格形式是one's,反身代词为oneself.如果讲One should do one's best.则是对句。如果one与别的词组成其他词,如: someone, anyone, everyone或only one 则要用his/her,来作其所有格形式。
[误]- Who won the game?- None.
[正]- Who won the game?- No one.
[析]由who提问的句子的否定回答中的简略说法是no one,而由How many提问的句子的否定回答中的简略语是None.如:How many books are there? None.
[误]There are many trees on either sides of the street.
[正]There are many trees on either side of the street.
[正]There are many trees on both sides of the street.
[析]either作代词时由两个含意,其一是两者中随便哪一个,如:You can take either.其二是两者中的每一个。但要注意的是either后要加单数名词,如果作主语则谓语动词也要用单数形式。
[误]Either you or I are right.
[正]Either you or I am right.
[误]I have three sisters. Neither of them is a doctor.
[正]I have three sisters. None of them is a doctor.
[误]He doesn't like Beijing opera. I don't like too.
[正]He doesn't like Beijing opera, I don't like either.
[误]We like both this little boy.
[正]We both like this little boy.
[析]both作同位语时,它在句中的位置有:在be动词之后,如:We are both students.在实意动词之前,如:The parents both want to go to the cinema.用于第一助动词之后,如:We have both read these English novels.使用时要注意以下句子的实际含意:Both of us are not right.应译为:我们俩不都对。Neither of us is right.才应译为:我俩都不对。又如:I can't give you both of the books.意为:两本书我不能全给你,而I can't give you either of the books.才为:两本书我全不能给你。
[误]We each has a ticket for the concert.
[正]We each have a ticket for the concert.
[析]each作句子主语时其谓语动词要用单数形式,如:Each of us wants to learn English well,但each作同位语时,则应以原名词的数为准。
[误]Every of us has to pass the exam.
[正]Each of us has to pass the exam.
[误]Everyone of us should do housework two hours a day.
[正]Every one of us should do housework two hours a day.
[误]I should read English everyday.
[正]I should read English every day.
[析]要注意的是every day是"每天",而everyday则是形容词为"日常的"。如:everyday English日常英语,everyday life日常生活。
[误]There are trees on every sides of the street.
[正]There are trees on each side of the street.
[误]All my parents are engineers.
[正]Both my parents are engineers.
[误]All of students might make some mistakes.
[正]All of the students might make some mistakes.
[正]All students might make some mistakes.
[析]非特指的名词前可用all但不可用all of结构,也就是讲all of结构后面的名词前一定要有定冠词。其他与all有关的习惯用法还有:
all the year round, all week, all day, all winter
[误]The all village was flooded.
[正]All the village was flooded.
[误]The post office is on other side of the street.
[正]The post office is on the other side of the street.
泛指 another形容词 作定语 作名词
another代词 other others
特指 the other形容词
the other the others
[误]There are ten students here Where are the others students?
[正]There are ten students here.Where are the others?
[正]There are ten students here Where are the other students?
[析]the others=the other students.
[误]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, another is a doctor.
[正]The old man has two sons. One is a teacher, the other is a doctor.
[析]another用于泛指,如:Is it far from here to the station?I'm sorry. I have no idea. One may say it is quite near; another may say it is far from here.但在特指时则要用the other.它可以用作定语,the other one,也可以用作代词the other,但the other用作代词时它的含意一定是单数。如果指三者或者三者以上的情况时,则要用one…another…the other.或者one…a second…the third…
[误]Some people like sports. The others like reading.
[正]Some people like sports. Others like reading.
[误]Please remember to water the flowers each other day.
[正]Please remember to water the flowers every other day.
[析]every other day为每隔一天。是习惯用法,不要随意改动。又如:on the other hand另一方面。
[误]Many know him, but few likes him.
[正]Many know him, but few like him.
[误]You have few friends, haven't you?
[正]You have few friends, have you?
[误]Much of what you said are true.
[正]Much of what you said is true.
[误]This room is enough large for the students to live in.
[正]This room is large enough for the students to live in.
[析]enough 可以用作代词,如:There is enough of the food. 又如:Enough has been done for the work,但enough 还可以作形容词来修饰名词,这时enough可以放在名词之前,也可放在名词之后,如:money enough 与enough money都是对的。但当enough作副词修饰形容词时,则只能置于形容词之后了。
[误]I want any books to read. Do you have any?
[正]I want some books to read. Do you have any?
[误]Would you like any thing to drink?
[正]Would you like something to drink?
[析]在由would you like发出的问句中,表达了说话者真心实意要为对方提供些饮料,或在说话者想得到对方的肯定答复时,在疑问句中要用some而不用any。
[误]Someone want to meet you.
[正]Someone wants to meet you.
[析]不定代词应被看作单数,即使用and连接两个不定代词,也要看作单数,如:Anyone and everyone has the right. 任何人,每一个人都有这样的权力。
[误]New York is much colder in winter than before.
[正]It is much colder in New York in winter than before.
It is ten o'clock now. (代时间)
It is far from here to the airport. (代距离)
It is very hot.(代天气)
It is very difficult to learn English well. (作形式主语)
We found it very difficult to answer the question. (作形式宾语)
[误]Be careful. Don't drink too many.
[正]Be careful. Don't drink too much.
1 These are ___books. Yours are over there.
A I B my C me D mine
2 -___ is she?
- She is a teacher.
A What B How C Who D Where
[析]这里的四个疑问词放在问句中全都成立,但其意义不同。What is she?应译为"她的工作是什么?"或"她是做什么的?"而How is she?应译为"她身体如何?"而Who is she?应译为"她是谁?"其答语应为"她叫什么名字。"而Where is she?应为"她在什么地方?"由答语决定了这道题的选择。
3___ is wrong with my watch. It has stopped___.
A Something, working B Something, to work
C Any thing, working D Anything, to work
4 Mary, help ___to the bananas, please.
A you B your C yourself D yourselves
[析]help oneself to something为"自己拿某物"。yourself为"你一个人",而yourselves为"你们"。
5 -___ do you go to school every day?
- By bus.
A How B Why C When D Where
6 My skirt is___ popular than___.
A much, her B much, hers C more, her D more, hers
7 - Can you speak English?
- Yes, but only___.
A few B a few C little D a little
8 Mr. Smith is an old friend of___.
A I B me C my D mine
9 " ___do you hear from your parents?"
"About once a month."
A How long B How many
C How often D How much
10 Mr Green wouldn't say ___at the meeting.
A everything B nothing C anything D something
11 "Mum, Ann's coming tonight. Let's give her ___to eat."
A anything nice B nice anything
C something nice D nice something
12 - When shall we meet, this evening or tomorrow evening?
- I don't mind. ___time is OK.
A Some B Neither C Either D Both
[析]因如选用both则名词要用复数名词,也要用复数谓语动词,由于答语前有I don't mind 则决定不能选择neither.
13 This is not her kite, but___.
A he's B him C he D his
14 Don't worry, Mum! ___ news is good news. I'm sure daddy will come back soon.
A No B Many C Those D Two
15 Mary has six apples. Her brother has three. She has ___apples than he.
A few B many C more D fewer
16 There isn't ___in today's newspaper.
A anything interesting
B something interesting
C nothing interesting
D interesting anything
17 September 10th is___ Day?
A Teacher B Teachers C Teacher's D Teachers'
[析]教师节Teachers' Day,儿童节 Children's Day, 妇女节 Women's Day
18 - In England, people eat a lot of "takeaway" food. What about people in your country?
A So we do. B We do so. C So do we. D We so do.
19 - Shall we go into that shop and have a look?
- Sorry. I won't. I have ___to do there.
A everything B anything C something D nothing
20- Oh, dear! Who broke the glass?
-___ Sam ___Bruce. It was the cat.
A Both, and B Not, but C Neither, nor D Either, or
21 The students are having a good time in the park. Some are drawing by the lake.___are climbing the hill.
A Others B Other C Another D The other
22 She is not a nurse. I'm not___.
A also B either C neither D too
23 I have two pencils. One is red,___ is blue.
A the other B another C others D the others
24 Sorry, I can't answer your question.
I know ___about the subject.
A little B a little C few D a few
25 My sister doesn't like skating___.
A So do I B So I don't
C Neither I don't D Neither do I
26 Yesterday morning there were only three boys in our room,___.
A you, he and I B I, you and he
C he, I and you D you, I and he
27 All the students are busy, so___of them will go to the concert.
A many B little C a few D few
28 The teacher gave ___student a new book.
A nobody B both C each D any
29 Black is neither a teacher ___a worker.
A or B either C nor D and
30 Our teacher gave us___on studying.
A many advices B some advices
C an advice D some advice
31 There are two foreign friends in the park. One ___is from Japan, is from America.
A other B others C the other D the others
32 Are there ___on the table?
A some cups B any cup C some cup D any cups
[析]此句是疑问句,应用any cups, 因提问时的be动词用的是are。
33 I've just bought five stamps. One is a German stamp, ___are American stamps.
A the other B the others C other D others
34 It was___ fine day that they went to the park.
A a so B so a C such a D a such
[析]在单数可数名词前可以有两种表达法,即such+不定冠词+形容词+可数名词单数形式,如:such a good day,或者用so加形容词+不定冠词+可数名词单数,如:so good a day.
35 At that time the train was slow and noisy. So___people liked taking trains.
A little B a little C few D a few
36 We must help and understand each___.
A other B another C others D the other
37 ___is difficult to walk on the moon.
A Man B One C That D It
[析]这里的真正主语应为不定式to walk on the moon.而形式主语只能用it.
38 Jane has sent several letters, but ___of them have been answered.
A all B both C either D none
39 I don't know ___about the new headmaster.
A something B everything C nothing D anything
40___ of the students in the whole class could do this physics question.
A No B None C Not D Neither